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Mon May 15 07:00:22 2006 UTC (8 years, 3 months ago) by nightmorph
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Fixed fstab grammar for bug 133348; thanks to chriswhite for reporting.

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.76 2006/03/28 10:35:59 neysx Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>2.18</version>
12 <date>2006-03-28</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Filesystem Information</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>What is fstab?</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
22 <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
23 (where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
24 and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
25 them or not, etc.)
26 </p>
27
28 </body>
29 </subsection>
30 <subsection>
31 <title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
32 <body>
33
34 <p>
35 <path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
36 fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
37 its own meaning:
38 </p>
39
40 <ul>
41 <li>
42 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
43 file)
44 </li>
45 <li>
46 The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be
47 mounted
48 </li>
49 <li>
50 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
51 </li>
52 <li>
53 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
54 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
55 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
56 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
57 </li>
58 <li>
59 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
60 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
61 </li>
62 <li>
63 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
64 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
65 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
67 </li>
68 </ul>
69
70 <p>
71 The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
72 fstab file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
73 <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
74 </p>
75
76 <pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
77 # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
78 </pre>
79
80 <p>
81 Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
82 partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
83 <path>/boot</path> partition (such as Apple <b>PPC</b> machines), don't copy it
84 verbatim.
85 </p>
86
87 <p>
88 In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
89 <path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
90 It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
91 </p>
92
93 <pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
94 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
95 </pre>
96
97 <p>
98 Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
99 automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
100 substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
101 manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
102 </p>
103
104 <p>
105 Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
106 option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
107 aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
108 </p>
109
110 <pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
111 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
112 </pre>
113
114 <p>
115 If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
116 <path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
117 </p>
118
119 <pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
120 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
121 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
122 /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
123 </pre>
124
125 <p>
126 To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
127 (required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
128 partitions or drives, for those too):
129 </p>
130
131 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
132 /dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
133 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
134 /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
135
136 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
137 none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
138
139 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
140 </pre>
141
142 <p>
143 <c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
144 removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
145 <c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
146 </p>
147
148 <p>
149 Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
150 <b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your
151 <path>/etc/fstab</path>
152 too:
153 </p>
154
155 <pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
156 none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
157 </pre>
158
159 <p>
160 Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
161 </p>
162
163 </body>
164 </subsection>
165 </section>
166 <section>
167 <title>Networking Information</title>
168 <subsection>
169 <title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
170 <body>
171
172 <p>
173 One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
174 quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
175 appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
176 choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
177 <c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
178 </p>
179
180 <p>
181 We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
182 </p>
183
184 <pre caption="Setting the hostname">
185 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
186
187 <comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your hostname)</comment>
188 HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>"
189 </pre>
190
191 <p>
192 Second we set the domainname:
193 </p>
194
195 <pre caption="Setting the domainname">
196 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i>
197
198 <comment>(Set the DNSDOMAIN variable to your domain name)</comment>
199 DNSDOMAIN="<i>homenetwork</i>"
200 </pre>
201
202 <p>
203 If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
204 one), you need to define that one too:
205 </p>
206
207 <pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
208 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i>
209
210 <comment>(Set the NISDOMAIN variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
211 NISDOMAIN="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
212 </pre>
213
214 </body>
215 </subsection>
216 <subsection>
217 <title>Configuring your Network</title>
218 <body>
219
220 <p>
221 Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
222 that the networking you set up in the beginning of the Gentoo installation was
223 just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
224 your Gentoo system permanently.
225 </p>
226
227 <note>
228 More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
229 bonding, bridging, 802.1Q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
230 link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
231 </note>
232
233 <p>
234 All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
235 a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
236 networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
237 commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
238 <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>.
239 </p>
240
241 <p>
242 DHCP is used by default and does not require any further configuration.
243 </p>
244
245 <p>
246 If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
247 specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
248 <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> is used in
249 this example):
250 </p>
251
252 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
253 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
254 </pre>
255
256 <p>
257 You will see the following file:
258 </p>
259
260 <pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
261 # This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
262 # scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
263 # please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration
264 # in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
265 </pre>
266
267 <p>
268 To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
269 to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
270 </p>
271
272 <pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
273 config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" )
274 routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" )
275 </pre>
276
277 <p>
278 To use DHCP and add specific DHCP options, define <c>config_eth0</c> and
279 <c>dhcp_eth0</c>:
280 </p>
281
282 <pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
283 config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
284 dhcp_eth0="nodns nontp nonis"
285 </pre>
286
287 <p>
288 Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available
289 options.
290 </p>
291
292 <p>
293 If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
294 <c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
295 </p>
296
297 <p>
298 Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
299 </p>
300
301 </body>
302 </subsection>
303 <subsection>
304 <title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
305 <body>
306
307 <p>
308 To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
309 default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
310 the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
311 </p>
312
313 <pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
314 # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
315 </pre>
316
317 <p>
318 If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
319 <path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
320 use <c>ln</c> to do this:
321 </p>
322
323 <pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
324 # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
325 # <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
326 # <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
327 </pre>
328
329 </body>
330 </subsection>
331 <subsection>
332 <title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
333 <body>
334
335 <p>
336 You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
337 <path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
338 for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
339 internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
340 <c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would
341 open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
342 </p>
343
344 <pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
345 # <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
346 </pre>
347
348 <pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
349 127.0.0.1 localhost
350 192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
351 192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
352 192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
353 </pre>
354
355 <p>
356 If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
357 resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
358 system <c>tux</c>:
359 </p>
360
361 <pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
362 127.0.0.1 localhost tux
363 </pre>
364
365 <p>
366 Save and exit the editor to continue.
367 </p>
368
369 <p>
370 If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
371 link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
372 following topic on PCMCIA.
373 </p>
374
375 </body>
376 </subsection>
377 <subsection>
378 <title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
379 <body>
380
381 <note>
382 pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
383 </note>
384
385 <p>
386 PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
387 includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
388 using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
389 to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
390 </p>
391
392 <pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
393 # <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
394 </pre>
395
396 <p>
397 When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
398 runlevel:
399 </p>
400
401 <pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
402 # <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
403 </pre>
404
405 </body>
406 </subsection>
407 </section>
408 <section>
409 <title>System Information</title>
410 <subsection>
411 <title>Root Password</title>
412 <body>
413
414 <p>
415 First we set the root password by typing:
416 </p>
417
418 <pre caption="Setting the root password">
419 # <i>passwd</i>
420 </pre>
421
422 <p>
423 If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
424 <c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
425 </p>
426
427 <pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
428 # <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
429 </pre>
430
431 </body>
432 </subsection>
433 <subsection>
434 <title>System Information</title>
435 <body>
436
437 <p>
438 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
439 Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
440 </p>
441
442 <pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
443 # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
444 </pre>
445
446 <p>
447 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit.
448 </p>
449
450 <p>
451 As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
452 configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
453 define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
454 </p>
455
456 <p>
457 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
458 Edit it to configure your keyboard.
459 </p>
460
461 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
462 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
463 </pre>
464
465 <p>
466 Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong
467 <c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
468 </p>
469
470 <note>
471 Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
472 select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap". <b>PPC</b> uses x86
473 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB keymaps on boot
474 have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to set a mac/ppc
475 keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
476 </note>
477
478 <p>
479 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
480 exit.
481 </p>
482
483 <p>
484 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
485 according to your needs.
486 </p>
487
488 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock">
489 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
490 </pre>
491
492 <p>
493 If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> to
494 the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew. Furthermore, Windows
495 assumes that your hardware clock uses local time, so if you want to dualboot,
496 you should set this variable appropriately, otherwise your clock will go crazy.
497 </p>
498
499 <p>
500 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and
501 exit.
502 </p>
503
504 <p>
505 If you are not installing Gentoo on IBM PPC64 hardware, continue with
506 <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System Tools</uri>.
507 </p>
508
509 </body>
510 </subsection>
511 <subsection>
512 <title>Configuring the Console</title>
513 <body>
514
515 <note>
516 The following section applies to the IBM PPC64 hardware platforms.
517 </note>
518
519 <p>
520 If you are running Gentoo on IBM PPC64 hardware and using a virtual console
521 you must uncomment the appropriate line in <path>/etc/inittab</path> for the
522 virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
523 </p>
524
525 <pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab">
526 hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0
527 hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0
528 </pre>
529
530 <p>
531 You should also take this time to verify that the appropriate console is
532 listed in <path>/etc/securetty</path>.
533 </p>
534
535 <p>
536 You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
537 System Tools</uri>.
538 </p>
539
540 </body>
541 </subsection>
542 </section>
543 </sections>

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