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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.79 2006/08/02 21:28:12 neysx Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>2.21</version>
12 <date>2006-08-23</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Filesystem Information</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>What is fstab?</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
22 <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mount points of those partitions
23 (where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
24 and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
25 them or not, etc.)
26 </p>
27
28 </body>
29 </subsection>
30 <subsection>
31 <title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
32 <body>
33
34 <p>
35 <path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
36 fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
37 its own meaning:
38 </p>
39
40 <ul>
41 <li>
42 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
43 file)
44 </li>
45 <li>
46 The second field shows the <b>mount point</b> at which the partition should be
47 mounted
48 </li>
49 <li>
50 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
51 </li>
52 <li>
53 The fourth field shows the <b>mount options</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
54 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mount options,
55 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
56 listing. Multiple mount options are comma-separated.
57 </li>
58 <li>
59 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
60 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
61 </li>
62 <li>
63 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
64 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
65 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
67 </li>
68 </ul>
69
70 <impo>
71 The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
72 fstab file</e>, You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
73 </impo>
74
75 <pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
76 # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
77 </pre>
78
79 </body>
80 <body test="func:keyval('/boot')">
81
82 <p>
83 Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
84 partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a
85 <path>/boot</path>, don't copy it.
86 </p>
87
88 <p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/hd')">
89 In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
90 usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition (or
91 <path>/dev/sda*</path> if you use SCSI or SATA drives), with <c>ext2</c> as
92 filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
93 </p>
94
95 <p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/sd')">
96 In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
97 usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
98 filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
99 </p>
100
101 <pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
102 <keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
103 </pre>
104
105 <p>
106 Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
107 automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
108 substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
109 manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
110 </p>
111
112 </body>
113 <body>
114
115 <p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='SPARC')">
116 Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for
117 <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>, for your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if
118 you have other partitions or drives, for those too.
119 </p>
120
121 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
122 Add the rules that match your partitioning schema and append rules for
123 <path>/proc/openprom</path>, <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c> , for your CD-ROM
124 drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives, for those too.
125 </p>
126
127 <p>
128 Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
129 </p>
130
131 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
132 <keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
133 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
134 /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
135
136 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
137 none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
138
139 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
140 </pre>
141
142 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
143 <keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
144 /dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
145 /dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
146
147 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
148 none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
149
150 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
151 </pre>
152
153 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS'">
154 <keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
155 /dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
156 /dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
157
158 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
159 none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
160
161 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
162 </pre>
163
164 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
165 /dev/sda1 / ext3 noatime 0 1
166 /dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
167 /dev/sda4 /usr ext3 noatime 0 2
168 /dev/sda5 /var ext3 noatime 0 2
169 /dev/sda6 /home ext3 noatime 0 2
170
171 none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
172 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
173 none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
174
175 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
176 </pre>
177
178 <note test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'">
179 There are important variations between PPC machine types. Please make sure you
180 adapt the following example to your system.
181 </note>
182
183 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'">
184 /dev/hda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
185 /dev/hda3 none swap sw 0 0
186
187 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
188 none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
189
190 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
191 </pre>
192
193 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
194 /dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
195 /dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
196
197 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
198 none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
199
200 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
201 </pre>
202
203 <p>
204 <c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
205 removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
206 <c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
207 </p>
208
209 <p>
210 To improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
211 mount option, which results in a faster system since access times
212 aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway).
213 </p>
214
215 <p>
216 Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
217 </p>
218
219 </body>
220 </subsection>
221 </section>
222 <section>
223 <title>Networking Information</title>
224 <subsection>
225 <title>Host name</title>
226 <body>
227
228 <p>
229 One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
230 quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
231 appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
232 choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
233 <c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
234 </p>
235
236 <pre caption="Setting the host name">
237 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
238
239 <comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your host name)</comment>
240 HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>"
241 </pre>
242
243 </body>
244 </subsection>
245 <subsection>
246 <title>Configuring your Network</title>
247 <body>
248
249 <p>
250 Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
251 that the networking you set up in the beginning of the Gentoo installation was
252 just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
253 your Gentoo system permanently.
254 </p>
255
256 <note>
257 More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
258 bonding, bridging, 802.1Q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
259 link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
260 </note>
261
262 <p>
263 All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
264 a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
265 networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
266 commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
267 <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>.
268 </p>
269
270 <p>
271 DHCP is used by default and does not require any further configuration.
272 </p>
273
274 <p>
275 If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
276 specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
277 <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> is used in
278 this example):
279 </p>
280
281 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
282 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
283 </pre>
284
285 <p>
286 You will see the following file:
287 </p>
288
289 <pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
290 # This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
291 # scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
292 # please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration
293 # in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
294 </pre>
295
296 <p>
297 To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
298 to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
299 </p>
300
301 <pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
302 config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" )
303 routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" )
304 </pre>
305
306 <p>
307 To use DHCP and add specific DHCP options, define <c>config_eth0</c> and
308 <c>dhcp_eth0</c>:
309 </p>
310
311 <pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
312 config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
313 dhcp_eth0="nodns nontp nonis"
314 </pre>
315
316 <p>
317 Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available
318 options.
319 </p>
320
321 <p>
322 If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
323 <c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
324 </p>
325
326 <p>
327 Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
328 </p>
329
330 </body>
331 </subsection>
332 <subsection>
333 <title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
334 <body>
335
336 <p>
337 To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
338 default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
339 the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
340 </p>
341
342 <pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
343 # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
344 </pre>
345
346 <p>
347 If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
348 <path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
349 use <c>ln</c> to do this:
350 </p>
351
352 <pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
353 # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
354 # <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth1</i>
355 # <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
356 </pre>
357
358 </body>
359 </subsection>
360 <subsection>
361 <title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
362 <body>
363
364 <p>
365 You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
366 <path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving host names to IP addresses for
367 hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. You need to define your system.
368 You may also want to define other systems on your network if you don't want to
369 set up your own internal DNS system.
370 </p>
371
372 <pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
373 # <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
374 </pre>
375
376 <pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
377 <comment>(This defines the current system)</comment>
378 127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
379
380 <comment>(Define extra systems on your network,
381 they need to have a static IP to be defined this way.)</comment>
382 192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
383 192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
384 </pre>
385
386 <p>
387 Save and exit the editor to continue.
388 </p>
389
390 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
391 If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
392 link="#sysinfo">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
393 following topic on PCMCIA.
394 </p>
395
396 </body>
397 </subsection>
398 <subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
399 <title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
400 <body>
401
402 <p>
403 PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
404 includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
405 using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
406 to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
407 </p>
408
409 <pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
410 # <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
411 </pre>
412
413 <p>
414 When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
415 runlevel:
416 </p>
417
418 <pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
419 # <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
420 </pre>
421
422 </body>
423 </subsection>
424 </section>
425
426 <section id="sysinfo">
427 <title>System Information</title>
428 <subsection>
429 <title>Root Password</title>
430 <body>
431
432 <p>
433 First we set the root password by typing:
434 </p>
435
436 <pre caption="Setting the root password">
437 # <i>passwd</i>
438 </pre>
439
440 <p>
441 If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
442 <c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
443 </p>
444
445 <pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
446 # <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
447 </pre>
448
449 </body>
450 </subsection>
451 <subsection>
452 <title>System Information</title>
453 <body>
454
455 <p>
456 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
457 Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
458 </p>
459
460 <pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
461 # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
462 </pre>
463
464 <p>
465 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit.
466 </p>
467
468 <p>
469 As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
470 configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
471 define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
472 </p>
473
474 <p>
475 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
476 Edit it to configure your keyboard.
477 </p>
478
479 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
480 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
481 </pre>
482
483 <p>
484 Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong
485 <c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
486 </p>
487
488 <note test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
489 Users of USB-based SPARC systems and SPARC clones might need to select an i386
490 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
491 </note>
492
493 <note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
494 PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB
495 keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to
496 set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
497 </note>
498
499 <p>
500 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
501 exit.
502 </p>
503
504 <p>
505 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
506 according to your needs.
507 </p>
508
509 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock">
510 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
511 </pre>
512
513 <p>
514 If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> to
515 the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew. Furthermore, Windows
516 assumes that your hardware clock uses local time, so if you want to dualboot,
517 you should set this variable appropriately, otherwise your clock will go crazy.
518 </p>
519
520 <p>
521 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and
522 exit.
523 </p>
524
525 <p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
526 Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
527 Tools</uri>.
528 </p>
529
530 </body>
531 </subsection>
532 <subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
533 <title>Configuring the Console</title>
534 <body>
535
536 <p>
537 If you are using a virtual console, you must uncomment the appropriate line in
538 <path>/etc/inittab</path> for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
539 </p>
540
541 <pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab">
542 hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0
543 hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0
544 </pre>
545
546 <p>
547 You should also take this time to verify that the appropriate console is
548 listed in <path>/etc/securetty</path>.
549 </p>
550
551 <p>
552 You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
553 System Tools</uri>.
554 </p>
555
556 </body>
557 </subsection>
558 </section>
559 </sections>

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