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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.83 2006/09/08 10:53:26 neysx Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <version>7.3</version>
12 <date>2006-09-12</date>
13
14 <section>
15 <title>Filesystem Information</title>
16 <subsection>
17 <title>What is fstab?</title>
18 <body>
19
20 <p>
21 Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
22 <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mount points of those partitions
23 (where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
24 and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
25 them or not, etc.)
26 </p>
27
28 </body>
29 </subsection>
30 <subsection>
31 <title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
32 <body>
33
34 <p>
35 <path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
36 fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
37 its own meaning:
38 </p>
39
40 <ul>
41 <li>
42 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
43 file)
44 </li>
45 <li>
46 The second field shows the <b>mount point</b> at which the partition should be
47 mounted
48 </li>
49 <li>
50 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
51 </li>
52 <li>
53 The fourth field shows the <b>mount options</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
54 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mount options,
55 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
56 listing. Multiple mount options are comma-separated.
57 </li>
58 <li>
59 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
60 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
61 </li>
62 <li>
63 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
64 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
65 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
67 </li>
68 </ul>
69
70 <impo>
71 The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
72 fstab file</e>, You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
73 </impo>
74
75 <pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
76 # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
77 </pre>
78
79 </body>
80 <body test="func:keyval('/boot')">
81
82 <p>
83 Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
84 partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a
85 <path>/boot</path>, don't copy it.
86 </p>
87
88 <p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/hd')">
89 In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
90 usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition (or
91 <path>/dev/sda*</path> if you use SCSI or SATA drives), with <c>ext2</c> as
92 filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
93 </p>
94
95 <p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/sd')">
96 In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
97 usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
98 filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
99 </p>
100
101 <pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
102 <keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
103 </pre>
104
105 <p>
106 Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
107 automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
108 substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
109 manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
110 </p>
111
112 </body>
113 <body>
114
115 <p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='SPARC')">
116 Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for
117 <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>, for your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if
118 you have other partitions or drives, for those too.
119 </p>
120
121 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
122 Add the rules that match your partitioning schema and append rules for
123 <path>/proc/openprom</path>, <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c> , for your CD-ROM
124 drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives, for those too.
125 </p>
126
127 <p>
128 Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
129 </p>
130
131 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
132 <keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
133 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
134 /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
135
136 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
137 none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
138
139 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
140 </pre>
141
142 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
143 <keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
144 /dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
145 /dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
146
147 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
148 none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
149
150 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
151 </pre>
152
153 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS'">
154 <keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
155 /dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
156 /dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
157
158 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
159 none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
160
161 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
162 </pre>
163
164 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
165 /dev/sda1 / ext3 noatime 0 1
166 /dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
167 /dev/sda4 /usr ext3 noatime 0 2
168 /dev/sda5 /var ext3 noatime 0 2
169 /dev/sda6 /home ext3 noatime 0 2
170
171 none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
172 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
173 none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
174
175 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
176 </pre>
177
178 <note test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'">
179 There are important variations between PPC machine types. Please make sure you
180 adapt the following example to your system.
181 </note>
182
183 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'">
184 /dev/hda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
185 /dev/hda3 none swap sw 0 0
186
187 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
188 none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
189
190 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
191 </pre>
192
193 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
194 /dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
195 /dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
196
197 none /proc proc defaults 0 0
198 none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
199
200 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
201 </pre>
202
203 <p>
204 <c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
205 removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
206 <c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
207 </p>
208
209 <p>
210 To improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
211 mount option, which results in a faster system since access times
212 aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway).
213 </p>
214
215 <p>
216 Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
217 </p>
218
219 </body>
220 </subsection>
221 </section>
222 <section>
223 <title>Networking Information</title>
224 <subsection>
225 <title>Host name, Domainname, etc</title>
226 <body>
227
228 <p>
229 One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
230 quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
231 appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
232 choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
233 <c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
234 </p>
235
236 <pre caption="Setting the host name">
237 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
238
239 <comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your host name)</comment>
240 HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>"
241 </pre>
242
243 <p>
244 Second we set the domainname in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>:
245 </p>
246
247 <pre caption="Setting the domainname">
248 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
249
250 <comment>(Set the dns_domain variable to your domain name)</comment>
251 dns_domain_lo="<i>homenetwork</i>"
252 </pre>
253
254 <p>
255 If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
256 one), you need to define that one too:
257 </p>
258
259 <pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
260 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
261
262 <comment>(Set the nis_domain variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
263 nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
264 </pre>
265
266 </body>
267 </subsection>
268 <subsection>
269 <title>Configuring your Network</title>
270 <body>
271
272 <p>
273 Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
274 that the networking you set up in the beginning of the Gentoo installation was
275 just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
276 your Gentoo system permanently.
277 </p>
278
279 <note>
280 More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
281 bonding, bridging, 802.1Q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
282 link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
283 </note>
284
285 <p>
286 All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
287 a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
288 networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
289 commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
290 <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>.
291 </p>
292
293 <p>
294 DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
295 client. This is described later in <uri
296 link="?part=1&amp;chap=9#networking-tools">Installing Necessary System
297 Tools</uri>. Do not forget to install a DHCP client.
298 </p>
299
300 <p>
301 If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
302 specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
303 <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> is used in
304 this example):
305 </p>
306
307 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
308 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
309 </pre>
310
311 <p>
312 You will see the following file:
313 </p>
314
315 <pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
316 # This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
317 # scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
318 # please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration
319 # in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
320 </pre>
321
322 <p>
323 To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
324 to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
325 </p>
326
327 <pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
328 config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" )
329 routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" )
330 </pre>
331
332 <p>
333 To use DHCP and add specific DHCP options, define <c>config_eth0</c> and
334 <c>dhcp_eth0</c>:
335 </p>
336
337 <pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
338 config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
339 dhcp_eth0="nodns nontp nonis"
340 </pre>
341
342 <p>
343 Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available
344 options.
345 </p>
346
347 <p>
348 If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
349 <c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
350 </p>
351
352 <p>
353 Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
354 </p>
355
356 </body>
357 </subsection>
358 <subsection>
359 <title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
360 <body>
361
362 <p>
363 To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
364 default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
365 the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
366 </p>
367
368 <pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
369 # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
370 </pre>
371
372 <p>
373 If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
374 <path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
375 use <c>ln</c> to do this:
376 </p>
377
378 <pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
379 # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
380 # <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth1</i>
381 # <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
382 </pre>
383
384 </body>
385 </subsection>
386 <subsection>
387 <title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
388 <body>
389
390 <p>
391 You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
392 <path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving host names to IP addresses for
393 hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. You need to define your system.
394 You may also want to define other systems on your network if you don't want to
395 set up your own internal DNS system.
396 </p>
397
398 <pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
399 # <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
400 </pre>
401
402 <pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
403 <comment>(This defines the current system)</comment>
404 127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
405
406 <comment>(Define extra systems on your network,
407 they need to have a static IP to be defined this way.)</comment>
408 192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
409 192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
410 </pre>
411
412 <p>
413 Save and exit the editor to continue.
414 </p>
415
416 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
417 If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
418 link="#sysinfo">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
419 following topic on PCMCIA.
420 </p>
421
422 </body>
423 </subsection>
424 <subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
425 <title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
426 <body>
427
428 <p>
429 PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
430 includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
431 using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
432 to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
433 </p>
434
435 <pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
436 # <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
437 </pre>
438
439 <p>
440 When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
441 runlevel:
442 </p>
443
444 <pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
445 # <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
446 </pre>
447
448 </body>
449 </subsection>
450 </section>
451
452 <section id="sysinfo">
453 <title>System Information</title>
454 <subsection>
455 <title>Root Password</title>
456 <body>
457
458 <p>
459 First we set the root password by typing:
460 </p>
461
462 <pre caption="Setting the root password">
463 # <i>passwd</i>
464 </pre>
465
466 <p>
467 If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
468 <c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
469 </p>
470
471 <pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
472 # <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
473 </pre>
474
475 </body>
476 </subsection>
477 <subsection>
478 <title>System Information</title>
479 <body>
480
481 <p>
482 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
483 Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
484 </p>
485
486 <pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
487 # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
488 </pre>
489
490 <p>
491 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit.
492 </p>
493
494 <p>
495 As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
496 configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
497 define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
498 </p>
499
500 <p>
501 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
502 Edit it to configure your keyboard.
503 </p>
504
505 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
506 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
507 </pre>
508
509 <p>
510 Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong
511 <c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
512 </p>
513
514 <note test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
515 Users of USB-based SPARC systems and SPARC clones might need to select an i386
516 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
517 </note>
518
519 <note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
520 PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB
521 keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to
522 set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
523 </note>
524
525 <p>
526 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
527 exit.
528 </p>
529
530 <p>
531 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
532 according to your needs.
533 </p>
534
535 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock">
536 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
537 </pre>
538
539 <p>
540 If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c>
541 to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
542 </p>
543
544 <p>
545 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and
546 exit.
547 </p>
548
549 <p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
550 Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
551 Tools</uri>.
552 </p>
553
554 </body>
555 </subsection>
556 <subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
557 <title>Configuring the Console</title>
558 <body>
559
560 <p>
561 If you are using a virtual console, you must uncomment the appropriate line in
562 <path>/etc/inittab</path> for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
563 </p>
564
565 <pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab">
566 hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0
567 hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0
568 </pre>
569
570 <p>
571 You should also take this time to verify that the appropriate console is
572 listed in <path>/etc/securetty</path>.
573 </p>
574
575 <p>
576 You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
577 System Tools</uri>.
578 </p>
579
580 </body>
581 </subsection>
582 </section>
583 </sections>

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