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added a note about emerging resolvconf-gentoo for bug 156478

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.87 2006/11/02 23:29:27 neysx Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <abstract>
12 You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
13 you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
14 proceed.
15 </abstract>
16
17 <version>7.6</version>
18 <date>2006-11-27</date>
19
20 <section>
21 <title>Filesystem Information</title>
22 <subsection>
23 <title>What is fstab?</title>
24 <body>
25
26 <p>
27 Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
28 <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mount points of those partitions
29 (where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
30 and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
31 them or not, etc.)
32 </p>
33
34 </body>
35 </subsection>
36 <subsection>
37 <title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
38 <body>
39
40 <p>
41 <path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
42 fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
43 its own meaning:
44 </p>
45
46 <ul>
47 <li>
48 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
49 file)
50 </li>
51 <li>
52 The second field shows the <b>mount point</b> at which the partition should be
53 mounted
54 </li>
55 <li>
56 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
57 </li>
58 <li>
59 The fourth field shows the <b>mount options</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
60 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mount options,
61 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
62 listing. Multiple mount options are comma-separated.
63 </li>
64 <li>
65 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
66 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
67 </li>
68 <li>
69 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
70 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
71 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
72 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
73 </li>
74 </ul>
75
76 <impo>
77 The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
78 fstab file</e>, You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
79 </impo>
80
81 <pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
82 # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
83 </pre>
84
85 </body>
86 <body test="func:keyval('/boot')">
87
88 <p>
89 Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
90 partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a
91 <path>/boot</path>, don't copy it.
92 </p>
93
94 <p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/hd')">
95 In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
96 usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition (or
97 <path>/dev/sda*</path> if you use SCSI or SATA drives), with <c>ext2</c> as
98 filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
99 </p>
100
101 <p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/sd')">
102 In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
103 usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
104 filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
105 </p>
106
107 <pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
108 <keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
109 </pre>
110
111 <p>
112 Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
113 automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
114 substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
115 manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
116 </p>
117
118 </body>
119 <body>
120
121 <p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='SPARC')">
122 Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for
123 <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>, for your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if
124 you have other partitions or drives, for those too.
125 </p>
126
127 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
128 Add the rules that match your partitioning schema and append rules for
129 <path>/proc/openprom</path>, <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c> , for your CD-ROM
130 drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives, for those too.
131 </p>
132
133 <p>
134 Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
135 </p>
136
137 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
138 <keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
139 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
140 /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
141
142 proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
143 shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
144
145 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
146 </pre>
147
148 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
149 <keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
150 /dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
151 /dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
152
153 proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
154 shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
155
156 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
157 </pre>
158
159 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS'">
160 <keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
161 /dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
162 /dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
163
164 proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
165 shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
166
167 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
168 </pre>
169
170 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
171 /dev/sda1 / ext3 noatime 0 1
172 /dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
173 /dev/sda4 /usr ext3 noatime 0 2
174 /dev/sda5 /var ext3 noatime 0 2
175 /dev/sda6 /home ext3 noatime 0 2
176
177 openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
178 proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
179 shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
180
181 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
182 </pre>
183
184 <note test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'">
185 There are important variations between PPC machine types. Please make sure you
186 adapt the following example to your system.
187 </note>
188
189 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'">
190 /dev/hda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
191 /dev/hda3 none swap sw 0 0
192
193 proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
194 shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
195
196 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
197 </pre>
198
199 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
200 /dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
201 /dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
202
203 proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
204 shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
205
206 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
207 </pre>
208
209 <p>
210 <c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
211 removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
212 <c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
213 </p>
214
215 <p>
216 To improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
217 mount option, which results in a faster system since access times
218 aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway).
219 </p>
220
221 <p>
222 Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
223 </p>
224
225 </body>
226 </subsection>
227 </section>
228 <section>
229 <title>Networking Information</title>
230 <subsection>
231 <title>Host name, Domainname, etc</title>
232 <body>
233
234 <p>
235 One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
236 quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
237 appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
238 choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
239 <c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
240 </p>
241
242 <pre caption="Setting the host name">
243 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
244
245 <comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your host name)</comment>
246 HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>"
247 </pre>
248
249 <p>
250 Second we set the domainname in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>:
251 </p>
252
253 <pre caption="Setting the domainname">
254 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
255
256 <comment>(Set the dns_domain variable to your domain name)</comment>
257 dns_domain_lo="<i>homenetwork</i>"
258 </pre>
259
260 <p>
261 If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
262 one), you need to define that one too:
263 </p>
264
265 <pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
266 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
267
268 <comment>(Set the nis_domain variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
269 nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
270 </pre>
271
272 <note>
273 For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
274 provided in <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. Also, you may want to emerge
275 <c>resolvconf-gentoo</c> to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
276 </note>
277
278 </body>
279 </subsection>
280 <subsection>
281 <title>Configuring your Network</title>
282 <body>
283
284 <p>
285 Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
286 that the networking you set up in the beginning of the Gentoo installation was
287 just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
288 your Gentoo system permanently.
289 </p>
290
291 <note>
292 More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
293 bonding, bridging, 802.1Q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
294 link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
295 </note>
296
297 <p>
298 All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
299 a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
300 networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
301 commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
302 <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>.
303 </p>
304
305 <p>
306 DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
307 client. This is described later in <uri
308 link="?part=1&amp;chap=9#networking-tools">Installing Necessary System
309 Tools</uri>. Do not forget to install a DHCP client.
310 </p>
311
312 <p>
313 If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
314 specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
315 <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> is used in
316 this example):
317 </p>
318
319 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
320 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
321 </pre>
322
323 <p>
324 You will see the following file:
325 </p>
326
327 <pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
328 # This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
329 # scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
330 # please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration
331 # in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
332 </pre>
333
334 <p>
335 To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
336 to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
337 </p>
338
339 <pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
340 config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" )
341 routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" )
342 </pre>
343
344 <p>
345 To use DHCP and add specific DHCP options, define <c>config_eth0</c> and
346 <c>dhcp_eth0</c>:
347 </p>
348
349 <pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
350 config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
351 dhcp_eth0="nodns nontp nonis"
352 </pre>
353
354 <p>
355 Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available
356 options.
357 </p>
358
359 <p>
360 If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
361 <c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
362 </p>
363
364 <p>
365 Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
366 </p>
367
368 </body>
369 </subsection>
370 <subsection>
371 <title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
372 <body>
373
374 <p>
375 To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
376 default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
377 the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
378 </p>
379
380 <pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
381 # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
382 </pre>
383
384 <p>
385 If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
386 <path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
387 use <c>ln</c> to do this:
388 </p>
389
390 <pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
391 # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
392 # <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth1</i>
393 # <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
394 </pre>
395
396 </body>
397 </subsection>
398 <subsection>
399 <title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
400 <body>
401
402 <p>
403 You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
404 <path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving host names to IP addresses for
405 hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. You need to define your system.
406 You may also want to define other systems on your network if you don't want to
407 set up your own internal DNS system.
408 </p>
409
410 <pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
411 # <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
412 </pre>
413
414 <pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
415 <comment>(This defines the current system)</comment>
416 127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
417
418 <comment>(Define extra systems on your network,
419 they need to have a static IP to be defined this way.)</comment>
420 192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
421 192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
422 </pre>
423
424 <p>
425 Save and exit the editor to continue.
426 </p>
427
428 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
429 If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
430 link="#sysinfo">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
431 following topic on PCMCIA.
432 </p>
433
434 </body>
435 </subsection>
436 <subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
437 <title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
438 <body>
439
440 <p>
441 PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
442 includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
443 using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
444 to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
445 </p>
446
447 <pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
448 # <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
449 </pre>
450
451 <p>
452 When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
453 runlevel:
454 </p>
455
456 <pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
457 # <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
458 </pre>
459
460 </body>
461 </subsection>
462 </section>
463
464 <section id="sysinfo">
465 <title>System Information</title>
466 <subsection>
467 <title>Root Password</title>
468 <body>
469
470 <p>
471 First we set the root password by typing:
472 </p>
473
474 <pre caption="Setting the root password">
475 # <i>passwd</i>
476 </pre>
477
478 <p>
479 If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
480 <c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
481 </p>
482
483 <pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
484 # <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
485 </pre>
486
487 </body>
488 </subsection>
489 <subsection>
490 <title>System Information</title>
491 <body>
492
493 <p>
494 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
495 Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
496 </p>
497
498 <pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
499 # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
500 </pre>
501
502 <p>
503 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit.
504 </p>
505
506 <p>
507 As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
508 configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
509 define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
510 </p>
511
512 <p>
513 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
514 Edit it to configure your keyboard.
515 </p>
516
517 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
518 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
519 </pre>
520
521 <p>
522 Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong
523 <c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
524 </p>
525
526 <note test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
527 Users of USB-based SPARC systems and SPARC clones might need to select an i386
528 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
529 </note>
530
531 <note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
532 PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB
533 keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to
534 set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
535 </note>
536
537 <p>
538 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
539 exit.
540 </p>
541
542 <p>
543 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
544 according to your needs.
545 </p>
546
547 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock">
548 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
549 </pre>
550
551 <p>
552 If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c>
553 to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
554 </p>
555
556 <p>
557 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and
558 exit.
559 </p>
560
561 <p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
562 Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
563 Tools</uri>.
564 </p>
565
566 </body>
567 </subsection>
568 <subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
569 <title>Configuring the Console</title>
570 <body>
571
572 <p>
573 If you are using a virtual console, you must uncomment the appropriate line in
574 <path>/etc/inittab</path> for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
575 </p>
576
577 <pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab">
578 hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0
579 hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0
580 </pre>
581
582 <p>
583 You should also take this time to verify that the appropriate console is
584 listed in <path>/etc/securetty</path>.
585 </p>
586
587 <p>
588 You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
589 System Tools</uri>.
590 </p>
591
592 </body>
593 </subsection>
594 </section>
595 </sections>

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