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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.93 2007/05/20 20:32:23 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <abstract>
12 You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
13 you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
14 proceed.
15 </abstract>
16
17 <version>8.2</version>
18 <date>2007-06-02</date>
19
20 <section>
21 <title>Filesystem Information</title>
22 <subsection>
23 <title>What is fstab?</title>
24 <body>
25
26 <p>
27 Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
28 <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mount points of those partitions
29 (where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
30 and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
31 them or not, etc.)
32 </p>
33
34 </body>
35 </subsection>
36 <subsection>
37 <title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
38 <body>
39
40 <p>
41 <path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
42 fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
43 its own meaning:
44 </p>
45
46 <ul>
47 <li>
48 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
49 file)
50 </li>
51 <li>
52 The second field shows the <b>mount point</b> at which the partition should be
53 mounted
54 </li>
55 <li>
56 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
57 </li>
58 <li>
59 The fourth field shows the <b>mount options</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
60 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mount options,
61 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
62 listing. Multiple mount options are comma-separated.
63 </li>
64 <li>
65 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
66 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
67 </li>
68 <li>
69 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
70 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
71 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
72 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
73 </li>
74 </ul>
75
76 <impo>
77 The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
78 fstab file</e>. You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
79 </impo>
80
81 <pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
82 # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
83 </pre>
84
85 </body>
86 <body test="func:keyval('/boot')">
87
88 <p>
89 Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
90 partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a
91 <path>/boot</path>, don't copy it.
92 </p>
93
94 <p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/hd')">
95 In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
96 usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition (or
97 <path>/dev/sda*</path> if you use SCSI or SATA drives), with <c>ext2</c> as
98 filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
99 </p>
100
101 <p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/sd')">
102 In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
103 usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
104 filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
105 </p>
106
107 <pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
108 <keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
109 </pre>
110
111 <p>
112 Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
113 automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
114 substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
115 manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
116 </p>
117
118 </body>
119 <body>
120
121 <p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='SPARC')">
122 Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for
123 <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>, for your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if
124 you have other partitions or drives, for those too.
125 </p>
126
127 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
128 Add the rules that match your partitioning schema and append rules for
129 <path>/proc/openprom</path>, <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c> , for your CD-ROM
130 drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives, for those too.
131 </p>
132
133 <p>
134 Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
135 </p>
136
137 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
138 <keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
139 /dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
140 /dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
141
142 proc /proc proc nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
143 shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
144
145 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
146 </pre>
147
148 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
149 <keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
150 /dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
151 /dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
152
153 proc /proc proc nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
154 shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
155
156 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
157 </pre>
158
159 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS'">
160 <keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
161 /dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
162 /dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
163
164 proc /proc proc nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
165 shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
166
167 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
168 </pre>
169
170 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
171 /dev/sda1 / ext3 noatime 0 1
172 /dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
173 /dev/sda4 /usr ext3 noatime 0 2
174 /dev/sda5 /var ext3 noatime 0 2
175 /dev/sda6 /home ext3 noatime 0 2
176
177 openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
178 proc /proc proc nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
179 shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
180
181 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
182 </pre>
183
184 <note test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'">
185 There are important variations between PPC machine types. Please make sure you
186 adapt the following example to your system.
187 </note>
188
189 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'">
190 /dev/hda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
191 /dev/hda3 none swap sw 0 0
192
193 proc /proc proc nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
194 shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
195
196 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
197 </pre>
198
199 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
200 /dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
201 /dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
202
203 proc /proc proc nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
204 shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
205
206 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
207 </pre>
208
209 <p>
210 <c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
211 removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
212 <c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
213 </p>
214
215 <p>
216 To improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
217 mount option, which results in a faster system since access times
218 aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway).
219 </p>
220
221 <p>
222 Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
223 </p>
224
225 </body>
226 </subsection>
227 </section>
228 <section>
229 <title>Networking Information</title>
230 <subsection>
231 <title>Host name, Domainname, etc</title>
232 <body>
233
234 <p>
235 One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
236 quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
237 appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
238 choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
239 <c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
240 </p>
241
242 <pre caption="Setting the host name">
243 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
244
245 <comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your host name)</comment>
246 HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>"
247 </pre>
248
249 <p>
250 Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>.
251 You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you
252 have a DNS server but not a DHCP server. You don't need to worry about DNS or
253 domainnames if your networking is setup for DHCP.
254 </p>
255
256 <pre caption="Setting the domainname">
257 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
258
259 <comment>(Set the dns_domain variable to your domain name)</comment>
260 dns_domain_lo="<i>homenetwork</i>"
261 </pre>
262
263 <note>
264 If you choose not to set a domainname, you can get rid of the "This is
265 hostname.(none)" messages at your login screen by editing
266 <path>/etc/issue</path>. Just delete the string <c>.\O</c> from that file.
267 </note>
268
269 <p>
270 If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
271 one), you need to define that one too:
272 </p>
273
274 <pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
275 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
276
277 <comment>(Set the nis_domain variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
278 nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
279 </pre>
280
281 <note>
282 For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
283 provided in <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. Also, you may want to emerge
284 <c>resolvconf-gentoo</c> to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
285 </note>
286
287 </body>
288 </subsection>
289 <subsection>
290 <title>Configuring your Network</title>
291 <body>
292
293 <p>
294 Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
295 that the networking you set up in the beginning of the Gentoo installation was
296 just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
297 your Gentoo system permanently.
298 </p>
299
300 <note>
301 More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
302 bonding, bridging, 802.1Q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
303 link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
304 </note>
305
306 <p>
307 All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
308 a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
309 networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
310 commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
311 <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>.
312 </p>
313
314 <p>
315 DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
316 client. This is described later in <uri
317 link="?part=1&amp;chap=9#networking-tools">Installing Necessary System
318 Tools</uri>. Do not forget to install a DHCP client.
319 </p>
320
321 <p>
322 If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
323 specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
324 <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> is used in
325 this example):
326 </p>
327
328 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
329 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
330 </pre>
331
332 <p>
333 You will see the following file:
334 </p>
335
336 <pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
337 # This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
338 # scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
339 # please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration
340 # in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
341 </pre>
342
343 <p>
344 To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
345 to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
346 </p>
347
348 <pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
349 config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" )
350 routes_eth0=( "default via 192.168.0.1" )
351 </pre>
352
353 <p>
354 To use DHCP and add specific DHCP options, define <c>config_eth0</c> and
355 <c>dhcp_eth0</c>:
356 </p>
357
358 <pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
359 config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
360 dhcp_eth0="nodns nontp nonis"
361 </pre>
362
363 <p>
364 Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available
365 options.
366 </p>
367
368 <p>
369 If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
370 <c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
371 </p>
372
373 <p>
374 Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
375 </p>
376
377 </body>
378 </subsection>
379 <subsection>
380 <title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
381 <body>
382
383 <p>
384 To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
385 default runlevel.
386 </p>
387
388 <pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
389 # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
390 </pre>
391
392 <p>
393 If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
394 <path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
395 use <c>ln</c> to do this:
396 </p>
397
398 <pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
399 # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
400 # <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth1</i>
401 # <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
402 </pre>
403
404 </body>
405 </subsection>
406 <subsection>
407 <title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
408 <body>
409
410 <p>
411 You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
412 <path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving host names to IP addresses for
413 hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. You need to define your system.
414 You may also want to define other systems on your network if you don't want to
415 set up your own internal DNS system.
416 </p>
417
418 <pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
419 # <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
420 </pre>
421
422 <pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
423 <comment>(This defines the current system)</comment>
424 127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
425
426 <comment>(Define extra systems on your network,
427 they need to have a static IP to be defined this way.)</comment>
428 192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
429 192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
430 </pre>
431
432 <p>
433 Save and exit the editor to continue.
434 </p>
435
436 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
437 If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
438 link="#sysinfo">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
439 following topic on PCMCIA.
440 </p>
441
442 </body>
443 </subsection>
444 <subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
445 <title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
446 <body>
447
448 <p>
449 PCMCIA users should first install the <c>pcmciautils</c> package.
450 </p>
451
452 <pre caption="Installing pcmciautils">
453 # <i>emerge pcmciautils</i>
454 </pre>
455
456 </body>
457 </subsection>
458 </section>
459
460 <section id="sysinfo">
461 <title>System Information</title>
462 <subsection>
463 <title>Root Password</title>
464 <body>
465
466 <p>
467 First we set the root password by typing:
468 </p>
469
470 <pre caption="Setting the root password">
471 # <i>passwd</i>
472 </pre>
473
474 </body>
475 </subsection>
476 <subsection>
477 <title>System Information</title>
478 <body>
479
480 <p>
481 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
482 Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
483 </p>
484
485 <pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
486 # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
487 </pre>
488
489 <p>
490 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit.
491 </p>
492
493 <p>
494 As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
495 configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
496 define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
497 </p>
498
499 <p>
500 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
501 Edit it to configure your keyboard.
502 </p>
503
504 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
505 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
506 </pre>
507
508 <p>
509 Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong
510 <c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
511 </p>
512
513 <note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
514 PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB
515 keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to
516 set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
517 </note>
518
519 <p>
520 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
521 exit.
522 </p>
523
524 <p>
525 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
526 according to your needs.
527 </p>
528
529 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock">
530 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
531 </pre>
532
533 <p>
534 If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c>
535 to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
536 </p>
537
538 <p>
539 You should define the timezone that you previously copied to
540 <path>/etc/localtime</path> so that further upgrades of the
541 <c>sys-libs/timezone-data</c> package can update <path>/etc/localtime</path>
542 automatically. For instance, if you used the GMT timezone, you would add
543 <c>TIMEZONE="GMT"</c>
544 </p>
545
546 <p>
547 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and
548 exit.
549 </p>
550
551 <p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
552 Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
553 Tools</uri>.
554 </p>
555
556 </body>
557 </subsection>
558 <subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
559 <title>Configuring the Console</title>
560 <body>
561
562 <p>
563 If you are using a virtual console, you must uncomment the appropriate line in
564 <path>/etc/inittab</path> for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
565 </p>
566
567 <pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab">
568 hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0
569 hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0
570 </pre>
571
572 <p>
573 You should also take this time to verify that the appropriate console is
574 listed in <path>/etc/securetty</path>.
575 </p>
576
577 <p>
578 You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
579 System Tools</uri>.
580 </p>
581
582 </body>
583 </subsection>
584 </section>
585 </sections>

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