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Revision 1.99 - (show annotations) (download) (as text)
Fri May 2 08:04:23 2008 UTC (6 years, 7 months ago) by nightmorph
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As announced on the list (http://archives.gentoo.org/gentoo-doc/msg_e721be404c6a5ae8ce5c5bf02f45381c.xml), assume all arches are using the libata framework, so sd* everywhere. includes updating block device and partition descriptions. also added a new included file for boot config (starting sshd, hdparm, etc). synced up several wayward files, including sparc. also changed/dropped usage of some now useless keys, since everyone's using sd*. lots of intensive, invasive changes. and i never even used sed once.

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2 <!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.98 2008/04/17 21:11:30 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8
9 <sections>
10
11 <abstract>
12 You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
13 you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
14 proceed.
15 </abstract>
16
17 <version>9.2</version>
18 <date>2008-05-02</date>
19
20 <section>
21 <title>Filesystem Information</title>
22 <subsection>
23 <title>What is fstab?</title>
24 <body>
25
26 <p>
27 Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
28 <path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mount points of those partitions
29 (where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
30 and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
31 them or not, etc.)
32 </p>
33
34 </body>
35 </subsection>
36 <subsection>
37 <title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
38 <body>
39
40 <p>
41 <path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
42 fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
43 its own meaning:
44 </p>
45
46 <ul>
47 <li>
48 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
49 file)
50 </li>
51 <li>
52 The second field shows the <b>mount point</b> at which the partition should be
53 mounted
54 </li>
55 <li>
56 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
57 </li>
58 <li>
59 The fourth field shows the <b>mount options</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
60 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mount options,
61 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
62 listing. Multiple mount options are comma-separated.
63 </li>
64 <li>
65 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
66 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
67 </li>
68 <li>
69 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
70 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
71 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
72 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
73 </li>
74 </ul>
75
76 <impo>
77 The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
78 fstab file</e>. You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
79 </impo>
80
81 <pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
82 # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
83 </pre>
84
85 </body>
86 <body test="func:keyval('/boot')">
87
88 <p>
89 Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
90 partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a
91 <path>/boot</path>, don't copy it.
92 </p>
93
94 <p>
95 In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
96 usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
97 filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
98 </p>
99
100 <pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
101 <keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
102 </pre>
103
104 <p>
105 Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
106 automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
107 substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
108 manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
109 </p>
110
111 </body>
112 <body>
113
114 <p>
115 Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for
116 your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives,
117 for those too.
118 </p>
119
120 <p>
121 Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
122 </p>
123
124 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
125 <keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
126 /dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
127 /dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
128
129 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
130 </pre>
131
132 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
133 <keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
134 /dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
135 /dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
136
137 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
138 </pre>
139
140 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
141 /dev/sda1 / ext3 noatime 0 1
142 /dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
143 /dev/sda4 /usr ext3 noatime 0 2
144 /dev/sda5 /var ext3 noatime 0 2
145 /dev/sda6 /home ext3 noatime 0 2
146
147 <comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment>
148 openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
149
150 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
151 </pre>
152
153 <pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or
154 func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
155 /dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
156 /dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
157
158 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
159 </pre>
160
161 <p>
162 <c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
163 removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
164 <c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
165 </p>
166
167 <p>
168 To improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
169 mount option, which results in a faster system since access times
170 aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway).
171 </p>
172
173 <p>
174 Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
175 </p>
176
177 </body>
178 </subsection>
179 </section>
180 <section>
181 <title>Networking Information</title>
182 <subsection>
183 <title>Host name, Domainname, etc</title>
184 <body>
185
186 <p>
187 One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
188 quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
189 appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
190 choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
191 <c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
192 </p>
193
194 <pre caption="Setting the host name">
195 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
196
197 <comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your host name)</comment>
198 HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>"
199 </pre>
200
201 <p>
202 Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>.
203 You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you
204 have a DNS server but not a DHCP server. You don't need to worry about DNS or
205 domainnames if your networking is setup for DHCP.
206 </p>
207
208 <pre caption="Setting the domainname">
209 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
210
211 <comment>(Set the dns_domain variable to your domain name)</comment>
212 dns_domain_lo="<i>homenetwork</i>"
213 </pre>
214
215 <note>
216 If you choose not to set a domainname, you can get rid of the "This is
217 hostname.(none)" messages at your login screen by editing
218 <path>/etc/issue</path>. Just delete the string <c>.\O</c> from that file.
219 </note>
220
221 <p>
222 If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
223 one), you need to define that one too:
224 </p>
225
226 <pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
227 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
228
229 <comment>(Set the nis_domain variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
230 nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
231 </pre>
232
233 <note>
234 For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
235 provided in <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. Also, you may want to emerge
236 <c>openresolv</c> to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
237 </note>
238
239 </body>
240 </subsection>
241 <subsection>
242 <title>Configuring your Network</title>
243 <body>
244
245 <p>
246 Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
247 that the networking you set up in the beginning of the Gentoo installation was
248 just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
249 your Gentoo system permanently.
250 </p>
251
252 <note>
253 More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
254 bonding, bridging, 802.1Q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
255 link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
256 </note>
257
258 <p>
259 All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
260 a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
261 networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
262 commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
263 <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>.
264 </p>
265
266 <p>
267 DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
268 client. This is described later in <uri
269 link="?part=1&amp;chap=9#networking-tools">Installing Necessary System
270 Tools</uri>. Do not forget to install a DHCP client.
271 </p>
272
273 <p>
274 If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
275 specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
276 <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> is used in
277 this example):
278 </p>
279
280 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
281 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
282 </pre>
283
284 <p>
285 You will see the following file:
286 </p>
287
288 <pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
289 # This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
290 # scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
291 # please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration
292 # in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
293 </pre>
294
295 <p>
296 To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
297 to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
298 </p>
299
300 <pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
301 config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" )
302 routes_eth0=( "default via 192.168.0.1" )
303 </pre>
304
305 <p>
306 To use DHCP and add specific DHCP options, define <c>config_eth0</c> and
307 <c>dhcp_eth0</c>:
308 </p>
309
310 <pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
311 config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
312 dhcp_eth0="nodns nontp nonis"
313 </pre>
314
315 <p>
316 Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available
317 options.
318 </p>
319
320 <p>
321 If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
322 <c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
323 </p>
324
325 <p>
326 Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
327 </p>
328
329 </body>
330 </subsection>
331 <subsection>
332 <title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
333 <body>
334
335 <p>
336 To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
337 default runlevel.
338 </p>
339
340 <pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
341 # <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
342 </pre>
343
344 <p>
345 If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
346 <path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
347 use <c>ln</c> to do this:
348 </p>
349
350 <pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
351 # <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
352 # <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth1</i>
353 # <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
354 </pre>
355
356 </body>
357 </subsection>
358 <subsection>
359 <title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
360 <body>
361
362 <p>
363 You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
364 <path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving host names to IP addresses for
365 hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. You need to define your system.
366 You may also want to define other systems on your network if you don't want to
367 set up your own internal DNS system.
368 </p>
369
370 <pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
371 # <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
372 </pre>
373
374 <pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
375 <comment>(This defines the current system)</comment>
376 127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
377
378 <comment>(Define extra systems on your network,
379 they need to have a static IP to be defined this way.)</comment>
380 192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
381 192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
382 </pre>
383
384 <p>
385 Save and exit the editor to continue.
386 </p>
387
388 <p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
389 If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
390 link="#sysinfo">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
391 following topic on PCMCIA.
392 </p>
393
394 </body>
395 </subsection>
396 <subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
397 <title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
398 <body>
399
400 <p>
401 PCMCIA users should first install the <c>pcmciautils</c> package.
402 </p>
403
404 <pre caption="Installing pcmciautils">
405 # <i>emerge pcmciautils</i>
406 </pre>
407
408 </body>
409 </subsection>
410 </section>
411
412 <section id="sysinfo">
413 <title>System Information</title>
414 <subsection>
415 <title>Root Password</title>
416 <body>
417
418 <p>
419 First we set the root password by typing:
420 </p>
421
422 <pre caption="Setting the root password">
423 # <i>passwd</i>
424 </pre>
425
426 </body>
427 </subsection>
428 <subsection>
429 <title>System Information</title>
430 <body>
431
432 <p>
433 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
434 Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
435 </p>
436
437 <pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
438 # <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
439 </pre>
440
441 <p>
442 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit.
443 </p>
444
445 <p>
446 As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
447 configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
448 define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
449 </p>
450
451 <p>
452 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
453 Edit it to configure your keyboard.
454 </p>
455
456 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
457 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
458 </pre>
459
460 <p>
461 Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong
462 <c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
463 </p>
464
465 <note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
466 PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB
467 keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to
468 set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
469 </note>
470
471 <p>
472 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
473 exit.
474 </p>
475
476 <p>
477 Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
478 according to your needs.
479 </p>
480
481 <pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock">
482 # <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
483 </pre>
484
485 <p>
486 If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c>
487 to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
488 </p>
489
490 <p>
491 You should define the timezone that you previously copied to
492 <path>/etc/localtime</path> so that further upgrades of the
493 <c>sys-libs/timezone-data</c> package can update <path>/etc/localtime</path>
494 automatically. For instance, if you used the GMT timezone, you would add
495 <c>TIMEZONE="GMT"</c>
496 </p>
497
498 <p>
499 When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and
500 exit.
501 </p>
502
503 <p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
504 Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
505 Tools</uri>.
506 </p>
507
508 </body>
509 </subsection>
510 <subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
511 <title>Configuring the Console</title>
512 <body>
513
514 <p>
515 If you are using a virtual console, you must uncomment the appropriate line in
516 <path>/etc/inittab</path> for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
517 </p>
518
519 <pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab">
520 hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0
521 hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0
522 </pre>
523
524 <p>
525 You should also take this time to verify that the appropriate console is
526 listed in <path>/etc/securetty</path>.
527 </p>
528
529 <p>
530 You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
531 System Tools</uri>.
532 </p>
533
534 </body>
535 </subsection>
536 </section>
537 </sections>

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