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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.100 2009/02/11 08:40:54 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8
9<sections>
10
11<abstract>
12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
14proceed.
15</abstract>
16
17<version>9.3</version>
18<date>2009-02-11</date>
19
1<section> 20<section>
2<subsection>
3<title>Timezone</title>
4<body>
5
6<p>
7<path>/etc/localtime</path>.
8</p>
9
10</body>
11</subsection>
12<subsection>
13<title>Filesystem Information</title> 21<title>Filesystem Information</title>
14<body>
15
16<p>
17<path>/etc/fstab</path>
18</p>
19
20</body>
21</subsection> 22<subsection>
23<title>What is fstab?</title>
24<body>
25
26<p>
27Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
28<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mount points of those partitions
29(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
30and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
31them or not, etc.)
32</p>
33
34</body>
22<subsection> 35</subsection>
36<subsection>
37<title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
38<body>
39
40<p>
41<path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
42fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
43its own meaning:
44</p>
45
46<ul>
47<li>
48 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
49 file)
50</li>
51<li>
52 The second field shows the <b>mount point</b> at which the partition should be
53 mounted
54</li>
55<li>
56 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
57</li>
58<li>
59 The fourth field shows the <b>mount options</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
60 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mount options,
61 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
62 listing. Multiple mount options are comma-separated.
63</li>
64<li>
65 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
66 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
67</li>
68<li>
69 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
70 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
71 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
72 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
73</li>
74</ul>
75
76<impo>
77The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
78fstab file</e>. You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
79</impo>
80
81<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
82# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
83</pre>
84
85</body>
86<body test="func:keyval('/boot')">
87
88<p>
89Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
90partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a
91<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it.
92</p>
93
94<p>
95In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
97filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
98</p>
99
100<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
101<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
102</pre>
103
104<p>
105Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
106automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
107substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
108manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
109</p>
110
111</body>
112<body>
113
114<p>
115Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for
116your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives,
117for those too.
118</p>
119
120<p>
121Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
122</p>
123
124<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
125<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
126/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
127/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
128
129/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
130</pre>
131
132<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
133<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
134/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
135/dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
136
137/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
138</pre>
139
140<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
141/dev/sda1 / ext3 noatime 0 1
142/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
143/dev/sda4 /usr ext3 noatime 0 2
144/dev/sda5 /var ext3 noatime 0 2
145/dev/sda6 /home ext3 noatime 0 2
146
147<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment>
148openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
149
150/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
151</pre>
152
153<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or
154func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
155/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
156/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
157
158/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
159</pre>
160
161<p>
162<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
163removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
164<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
165</p>
166
167<p>
168To improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
169mount option, which results in a faster system since access times
170aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway).
171</p>
172
173<p>
174Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
175</p>
176
177</body>
178</subsection>
179</section>
180<section>
23<title>Networking Information</title> 181<title>Networking Information</title>
24<body>
25
26<p>
27<path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>, <c>rc-update add net.eth0</c>,
28PCMCIA-information etc.
29</p>
30
31</body>
32</subsection> 182<subsection>
183<title>Host name, Domainname, etc</title>
184<body>
185
186<p>
187One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
188quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
189appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
190choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
191<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
192</p>
193
194<pre caption="Setting the host name">
195# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
196
197<comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your host name)</comment>
198HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>"
199</pre>
200
201<p>
202Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>.
203You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you
204have a DNS server but not a DHCP server. You don't need to worry about DNS or
205domainnames if your networking is setup for DHCP.
206</p>
207
208<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
209# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
210
211<comment>(Set the dns_domain variable to your domain name)</comment>
212dns_domain_lo="<i>homenetwork</i>"
213</pre>
214
215<note>
216If you choose not to set a domainname, you can get rid of the "This is
217hostname.(none)" messages at your login screen by editing
218<path>/etc/issue</path>. Just delete the string <c>.\O</c> from that file.
219</note>
220
221<p>
222If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
223one), you need to define that one too:
224</p>
225
226<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
227# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
228
229<comment>(Set the nis_domain variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
230nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
231</pre>
232
233<note>
234For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
235provided in <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. Also, you may want to emerge
236<c>openresolv</c> to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
237</note>
238
239</body>
33<subsection> 240</subsection>
241<subsection>
242<title>Configuring your Network</title>
243<body>
244
245<p>
246Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
247that the networking you set up in the beginning of the Gentoo installation was
248just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
249your Gentoo system permanently.
250</p>
251
252<note>
253More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
254bonding, bridging, 802.1Q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
255link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
256</note>
257
258<p>
259All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
260a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
261networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
262commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
263<path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>.
264</p>
265
266<p>
267DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
268client. This is described later in <uri
269link="?part=1&amp;chap=9#networking-tools">Installing Necessary System
270Tools</uri>. Do not forget to install a DHCP client.
271</p>
272
273<p>
274If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
275specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
276<path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> is used in
277this example):
278</p>
279
280<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
281# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
282</pre>
283
284<p>
285You will see the following file:
286</p>
287
288<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
289# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
290# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
291# please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration
292# in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
293</pre>
294
295<p>
296To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
297to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
298</p>
299
300<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
301config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" )
302routes_eth0=( "default via 192.168.0.1" )
303</pre>
304
305<p>
306To use DHCP, define <c>config_eth0</c>:
307</p>
308
309<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
310config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
311</pre>
312
313<p>
314Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available
315options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if you need to set
316specific DHCP options.
317</p>
318
319<p>
320If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
321<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
322</p>
323
324<p>
325Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
326</p>
327
328</body>
329</subsection>
330<subsection>
331<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
332<body>
333
334<p>
335To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
336default runlevel.
337</p>
338
339<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
340# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
341</pre>
342
343<p>
344If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
345<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
346use <c>ln</c> to do this:
347</p>
348
349<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
350# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
351# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth1</i>
352# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
353</pre>
354
355</body>
356</subsection>
357<subsection>
358<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
359<body>
360
361<p>
362You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
363<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving host names to IP addresses for
364hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. You need to define your system.
365You may also want to define other systems on your network if you don't want to
366set up your own internal DNS system.
367</p>
368
369<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
370# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
371</pre>
372
373<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
374<comment>(This defines the current system)</comment>
375127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
376
377<comment>(Define extra systems on your network,
378they need to have a static IP to be defined this way.)</comment>
379192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
380192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
381</pre>
382
383<p>
384Save and exit the editor to continue.
385</p>
386
387<p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
388If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
389link="#sysinfo">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
390following topic on PCMCIA.
391</p>
392
393</body>
394</subsection>
395<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
396<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
397<body>
398
399<p>
400PCMCIA users should first install the <c>pcmciautils</c> package.
401</p>
402
403<pre caption="Installing pcmciautils">
404# <i>emerge pcmciautils</i>
405</pre>
406
407</body>
408</subsection>
409</section>
410
411<section id="sysinfo">
34<title>System Information</title> 412<title>System Information</title>
413<subsection>
414<title>Root Password</title>
415<body>
416
417<p>
418First we set the root password by typing:
419</p>
420
421<pre caption="Setting the root password">
422# <i>passwd</i>
423</pre>
424
35<body> 425</body>
426</subsection>
427<subsection>
428<title>System Information</title>
429<body>
36 430
431<p>
432Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
433Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
37<p> 434</p>
38<path>/etc/rc.conf</path> 435
436<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
437# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
438</pre>
439
440<p>
441When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit.
442</p>
443
444<p>
445As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
446configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
447define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
448</p>
449
450<p>
451Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
452Edit it to configure your keyboard.
453</p>
454
455<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
456# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
457</pre>
458
459<p>
460Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong
461<c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
462</p>
463
464<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
465PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB
466keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to
467set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
468</note>
469
470<p>
471When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
472exit.
473</p>
474
475<p>
476Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
477according to your needs.
478</p>
479
480<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock">
481# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
482</pre>
483
484<p>
485If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c>
486to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
487</p>
488
489<p>
490You should define the timezone that you previously copied to
491<path>/etc/localtime</path> so that further upgrades of the
492<c>sys-libs/timezone-data</c> package can update <path>/etc/localtime</path>
493automatically. For instance, if you used the GMT timezone, you would add
494<c>TIMEZONE="GMT"</c>
495</p>
496
497<p>
498When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and
499exit.
500</p>
501
502<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
503Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
504Tools</uri>.
505</p>
506
507</body>
508</subsection>
509<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
510<title>Configuring the Console</title>
511<body>
512
513<p>
514If you are using a virtual console, you must uncomment the appropriate line in
515<path>/etc/inittab</path> for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
516</p>
517
518<pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab">
519hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0
520hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0
521</pre>
522
523<p>
524You should also take this time to verify that the appropriate console is
525listed in <path>/etc/securetty</path>.
526</p>
527
528<p>
529You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
530System Tools</uri>.
39</p> 531</p>
40 532
41</body> 533</body>
42</subsection> 534</subsection>
43</section> 535</section>
536</sections>

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