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2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
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6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.100 2009/02/11 08:40:54 nightmorph Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.113 2012/04/08 20:34:04 cam Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<abstract> 11<abstract>
12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter 12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to 13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
14proceed. 14proceed.
15</abstract> 15</abstract>
16 16
17<version>9.3</version> 17<version>20</version>
18<date>2009-02-11</date> 18<date>2012-04-08</date>
19 19
20<section> 20<section>
21<title>Filesystem Information</title> 21<title>Filesystem Information</title>
22<subsection> 22<subsection>
23<title>What is fstab?</title> 23<title>What is fstab?</title>
125<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 125<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
126/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0 126/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
127/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1 127/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
128 128
129/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 129/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
130
131proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
132shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
130</pre> 133</pre>
131 134
132<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'"> 135<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
133<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 136<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
134/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0 137/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
135/dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 138/dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
136 139
137/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 140/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
141
142proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
143shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
138</pre> 144</pre>
139 145
140<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'"> 146<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
141/dev/sda1 / ext3 noatime 0 1 147/dev/sda1 / ext3 noatime 0 1
142/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0 148/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
146 152
147<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment> 153<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment>
148openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0 154openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
149 155
150/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 156/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
157
158proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
159shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
151</pre> 160</pre>
152 161
153<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or 162<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or
154func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'"> 163func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
155/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1 164/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
156/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0 165/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
157 166
158/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 167/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
168
169proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
170shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
159</pre> 171</pre>
160 172
161<p> 173<p>
162<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for 174<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
163removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and 175removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
192</p> 204</p>
193 205
194<pre caption="Setting the host name"> 206<pre caption="Setting the host name">
195# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i> 207# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
196 208
197<comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your host name)</comment> 209<comment>(Set the hostname variable to your host name)</comment>
198HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>" 210hostname="<i>tux</i>"
199</pre> 211</pre>
200 212
201<p> 213<p>
202Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. 214Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>.
203You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you 215You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you
230nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>" 242nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
231</pre> 243</pre>
232 244
233<note> 245<note>
234For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples 246For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
235provided in <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. Also, you may want to emerge 247provided in <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> which
248can be read using <c>bzless</c>. Also, you may want to emerge <c>openresolv</c>
236<c>openresolv</c> to help manage your DNS/NIS setup. 249to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
237</note> 250</note>
238 251
239</body> 252</body>
240</subsection> 253</subsection>
241<subsection> 254<subsection>
258<p> 271<p>
259All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 272All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
260a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up 273a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
261networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully 274networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
262commented example that covers many different configurations is available in 275commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
263<path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. 276<path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path>.
264</p> 277</p>
265 278
266<p> 279<p>
267DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP 280DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
268client. This is described later in <uri 281client. This is described later in <uri
286</p> 299</p>
287 300
288<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net"> 301<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
289# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.* 302# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
290# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration, 303# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
291# please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration 304# please review /usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2 and save
292# in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!). 305# your configuration in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
293</pre> 306</pre>
294 307
295<p> 308<p>
296To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need 309To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
297to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>: 310to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
298</p> 311</p>
299 312
300<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0"> 313<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
301config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" ) 314config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255"
302routes_eth0=( "default via 192.168.0.1" ) 315routes_eth0="default via 192.168.0.1"
303</pre> 316</pre>
304 317
305<p> 318<p>
306To use DHCP, define <c>config_eth0</c>: 319To use DHCP, define <c>config_eth0</c>:
307</p> 320</p>
308 321
309<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0"> 322<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
310config_eth0=( "dhcp" ) 323config_eth0="dhcp"
311</pre> 324</pre>
312 325
313<p> 326<p>
314Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available 327Please read <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> for a
315options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if you need to set 328list of all available options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if
316specific DHCP options. 329you need to set specific DHCP options.
317</p> 330</p>
318 331
319<p> 332<p>
320If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for 333If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
321<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc. 334<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
335To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the 348To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
336default runlevel. 349default runlevel.
337</p> 350</p>
338 351
339<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 352<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
353# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
354# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth0</i>
340# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i> 355# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
341</pre> 356</pre>
342 357
343<p> 358<p>
344If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate 359If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
345<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can 360<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. just like you did with
346use <c>ln</c> to do this: 361<path>net.eth0</path>.
347</p>
348
349<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
350# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
351# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth1</i>
352# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
353</pre> 362</p>
354 363
355</body> 364</body>
356</subsection> 365</subsection>
357<subsection> 366<subsection>
358<title>Writing Down Network Information</title> 367<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
427<subsection> 436<subsection>
428<title>System Information</title> 437<title>System Information</title>
429<body> 438<body>
430 439
431<p> 440<p>
432Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 441Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to configure the services, startup,
433Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :) 442and shutdown of your system. Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all
443the comments in the file.
434</p> 444</p>
435 445
436<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf"> 446<pre caption="Configuring services">
437# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 447# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
438</pre> 448</pre>
439 449
440<p> 450<p>
441When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit. 451When you're finished configuring these two files, save them and exit.
442</p>
443
444<p>
445As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
446configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
447define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
448</p> 452</p>
449 453
450<p> 454<p>
451Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration. 455Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
452Edit it to configure your keyboard. 456Edit it to configure your keyboard.
455<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps"> 459<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
456# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i> 460# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
457</pre> 461</pre>
458 462
459<p> 463<p>
460Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong 464Take special care with the <c>keymap</c> variable. If you select the wrong
461<c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard. 465<c>keymap</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
462</p> 466</p>
463 467
464<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'"> 468<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
465PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB 469PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems.
466keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to
467set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
468</note> 470</note>
469 471
470<p> 472<p>
471When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and 473When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
472exit. 474exit.
473</p> 475</p>
474 476
475<p> 477<p>
476Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it 478Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
477according to your needs. 479according to your needs.
478</p> 480</p>
479 481
480<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock"> 482<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/hwclock">
481# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i> 483# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock</i>
482</pre> 484</pre>
483 485
484<p> 486<p>
485If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> 487If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>clock="local"</c>
486to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew. 488to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
487</p> 489</p>
488 490
489<p> 491<p>
492When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path>, save and
493exit.
494</p>
495
496<p>
490You should define the timezone that you previously copied to 497You should define the timezone that you previously copied to
491<path>/etc/localtime</path> so that further upgrades of the 498<path>/etc/localtime</path> in the <path>/etc/timezone</path> file so that
492<c>sys-libs/timezone-data</c> package can update <path>/etc/localtime</path> 499further upgrades of the <c>sys-libs/timezone-data</c> package can update
493automatically. For instance, if you used the GMT timezone, you would add 500<path>/etc/localtime</path> automatically. For instance, if you used the
494<c>TIMEZONE="GMT"</c> 501Europe/Brussels timezone, you would write <c>Europe/Brussels</c> in the
495</p> 502<path>/etc/timezone</path> file.
496
497<p> 503</p>
498When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and 504
499exit. 505</body>
506</subsection>
507
508<subsection>
509<title>Configure locales</title>
510<body>
511
512<p>
513You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You have to
514specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
515</p>
516
517<pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
518# <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
519</pre>
520
521<p>
522The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
523German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
524</p>
525
526<pre caption="Specify your locales">
527en_US ISO-8859-1
528en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
529de_DE ISO-8859-1
530de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
531</pre>
532
533<note>
534You can select your desired locales in the list given by running <c>locale -a</c>.
535</note>
536
537<warn>
538We strongly suggest that you should use at least one UTF-8 locale because some
539applications would require it.
540</warn>
541
542<p>
543The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generates all the locales you
544have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
545</p>
546
547<pre caption="Running locale-gen">
548# <i>locale-gen</i>
549</pre>
550
551<p>
552Once done, you now have the possibility to set the system-wide locale settings
553in the <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> file:
554</p>
555
556<pre caption="Setting the default system locale in /etc/env.d/02locale">
557LANG="de_DE.UTF-8"
558LC_COLLATE="C"
559</pre>
560
561<p>
562And reload your environment:
563</p>
564
565<pre caption="Reload shell environment">
566# env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile
567</pre>
568
569<p>
570We made a full <uri link="../guide-localization.xml#doc_chap3">Localization
571Guide</uri> to help you through this process. You can also read our detailed
572<uri link="../utf-8.xml#doc_chap2">UTF-8 Guide</uri> for very specific
573informations to enable UTF-8 on your system.
500</p> 574</p>
501 575
502<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')"> 576<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
503Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System 577Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
504Tools</uri>. 578Tools</uri>.

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