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2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.103 2011/08/02 17:43:17 jkt Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.116 2012/10/06 20:16:10 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<abstract> 11<abstract>
12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter 12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to 13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
14proceed. 14proceed.
15</abstract> 15</abstract>
16 16
17<version>10</version> 17<version>22</version>
18<date>2011-08-02</date> 18<date>2012-10-06</date>
19 19
20<section> 20<section>
21<title>Filesystem Information</title> 21<title>Filesystem Information</title>
22<subsection> 22<subsection>
23<title>What is fstab?</title> 23<title>What is fstab?</title>
96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as 96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
97filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down: 97filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
98</p> 98</p>
99 99
100<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 100<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
101<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 1 2 101<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 0 2
102</pre> 102</pre>
103 103
104<p> 104<p>
105Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted 105Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
106automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should 106automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
120<p> 120<p>
121Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>: 121Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
122</p> 122</p>
123 123
124<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'"> 124<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
125<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 125<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
126/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0 126/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
127/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1 127/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
128 128
129/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 129/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
130
131proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
132shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
133</pre> 130</pre>
134 131
135<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'"> 132<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
136<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 133<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
137/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0 134/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
138/dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 135/dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
139 136
140/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 137/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
141
142proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
143shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
144</pre> 138</pre>
145 139
146<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'"> 140<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
147/dev/sda1 / ext3 noatime 0 1 141/dev/sda1 / ext3 noatime 0 1
148/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0 142/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
152 146
153<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment> 147<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment>
154openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0 148openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
155 149
156/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 150/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
157
158proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
159shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
160</pre> 151</pre>
161 152
162<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or 153<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or
163func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'"> 154func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
164/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1 155/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
165/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0 156/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
166 157
167/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 158/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
168
169proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
170shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
171</pre> 159</pre>
172 160
173<p> 161<p>
174<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for 162<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
175removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and 163removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
204</p> 192</p>
205 193
206<pre caption="Setting the host name"> 194<pre caption="Setting the host name">
207# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i> 195# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
208 196
209<comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your host name)</comment> 197<comment>(Set the hostname variable to your host name)</comment>
210HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>" 198hostname="<i>tux</i>"
211</pre> 199</pre>
212 200
213<p> 201<p>
214Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. 202Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>.
215You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you 203You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you
242nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>" 230nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
243</pre> 231</pre>
244 232
245<note> 233<note>
246For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples 234For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
247provided in <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. Also, you may want to emerge 235provided in <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> which
236can be read using <c>bzless</c>. Also, you may want to emerge <c>openresolv</c>
248<c>openresolv</c> to help manage your DNS/NIS setup. 237to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
249</note> 238</note>
250 239
251</body> 240</body>
252</subsection> 241</subsection>
253<subsection> 242<subsection>
270<p> 259<p>
271All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 260All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
272a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up 261a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
273networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully 262networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
274commented example that covers many different configurations is available in 263commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
275<path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. 264<path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path>.
276</p> 265</p>
277 266
278<p> 267<p>
279DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP 268DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
280client. This is described later in <uri 269client. This is described later in <uri
298</p> 287</p>
299 288
300<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net"> 289<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
301# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.* 290# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
302# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration, 291# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
303# please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration 292# please review /usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2 and save
304# in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!). 293# your configuration in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
305</pre> 294</pre>
306 295
307<p> 296<p>
308To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need 297To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
309to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>: 298to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
310</p> 299</p>
311 300
312<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0"> 301<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
313config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" ) 302config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255"
314routes_eth0=( "default via 192.168.0.1" ) 303routes_eth0="default via 192.168.0.1"
315</pre> 304</pre>
316 305
317<p> 306<p>
318To use DHCP, define <c>config_eth0</c>: 307To use DHCP, define <c>config_eth0</c>:
319</p> 308</p>
320 309
321<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0"> 310<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
322config_eth0=( "dhcp" ) 311config_eth0="dhcp"
323</pre> 312</pre>
324 313
325<p> 314<p>
326Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available 315Please read <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> for a
327options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if you need to set 316list of all available options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if
328specific DHCP options. 317you need to set specific DHCP options.
329</p> 318</p>
330 319
331<p> 320<p>
332If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for 321If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
333<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc. 322<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
435<subsection> 424<subsection>
436<title>System Information</title> 425<title>System Information</title>
437<body> 426<body>
438 427
439<p> 428<p>
440Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 429Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to configure the services, startup,
441Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :) 430and shutdown of your system. Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all
431the comments in the file.
442</p> 432</p>
443 433
444<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf"> 434<pre caption="Configuring services">
445# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 435# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
446</pre> 436</pre>
447 437
448<p> 438<p>
449When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit. 439When you're finished configuring these two files, save them and exit.
450</p>
451
452<p>
453As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
454configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
455define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
456</p> 440</p>
457 441
458<p> 442<p>
459Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration. 443Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
460Edit it to configure your keyboard. 444Edit it to configure your keyboard.
463<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps"> 447<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
464# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i> 448# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
465</pre> 449</pre>
466 450
467<p> 451<p>
468Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong 452Take special care with the <c>keymap</c> variable. If you select the wrong
469<c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard. 453<c>keymap</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
470</p> 454</p>
471 455
472<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'"> 456<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
473PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. 457PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems.
474</note> 458</note>
477When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and 461When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
478exit. 462exit.
479</p> 463</p>
480 464
481<p> 465<p>
482Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it 466Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
483according to your needs. 467according to your needs.
484</p> 468</p>
485 469
486<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock"> 470<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/hwclock">
487# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i> 471# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock</i>
488</pre> 472</pre>
489 473
490<p> 474<p>
491If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> 475If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>clock="local"</c>
492to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew. 476to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
493</p> 477</p>
494 478
495<p> 479<p>
480When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path>, save and
481exit.
482</p>
483
484<p>
496You should define the timezone that you previously copied to 485You should define the timezone that you previously copied to
497<path>/etc/localtime</path> so that further upgrades of the 486<path>/etc/localtime</path> in the <path>/etc/timezone</path> file so that
498<c>sys-libs/timezone-data</c> package can update <path>/etc/localtime</path> 487further upgrades of the <c>sys-libs/timezone-data</c> package can update
499automatically. For instance, if you used the GMT timezone, you would add 488<path>/etc/localtime</path> automatically. For instance, if you used the
500<c>TIMEZONE="GMT"</c> 489Europe/Brussels timezone, you would write <c>Europe/Brussels</c> in the
501</p> 490<path>/etc/timezone</path> file.
502
503<p> 491</p>
504When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and 492
505exit. 493</body>
494</subsection>
495
496<subsection>
497<title>Configure locales</title>
498<body>
499
500<p>
501You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You have to
502specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
503</p>
504
505<pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
506# <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
507</pre>
508
509<p>
510The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
511German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
512</p>
513
514<pre caption="Specify your locales">
515en_US ISO-8859-1
516en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
517de_DE ISO-8859-1
518de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
519</pre>
520
521<note>
522You can select your desired locales in the list given by running <c>locale -a</c>.
523</note>
524
525<warn>
526We strongly suggest that you should use at least one UTF-8 locale because some
527applications may require it.
528</warn>
529
530<p>
531The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generates all the locales you
532have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
533</p>
534
535<pre caption="Running locale-gen">
536# <i>locale-gen</i>
537</pre>
538
539<p>
540Once done, you now have the possibility to set the system-wide locale settings
541in the <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> file:
542</p>
543
544<pre caption="Setting the default system locale in /etc/env.d/02locale">
545LANG="de_DE.UTF-8"
546LC_COLLATE="C"
547</pre>
548
549<p>
550And reload your environment:
551</p>
552
553<pre caption="Reload shell environment">
554# env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile
555</pre>
556
557<p>
558We made a full <uri link="../guide-localization.xml#doc_chap3">Localization
559Guide</uri> to help you through this process. You can also read our detailed
560<uri link="../utf-8.xml#doc_chap2">UTF-8 Guide</uri> for very specific
561informations to enable UTF-8 on your system.
506</p> 562</p>
507 563
508<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')"> 564<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
509Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System 565Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
510Tools</uri>. 566Tools</uri>.

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