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3 3
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7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.82 2006/09/04 09:11:39 nightmorph Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.103 2011/08/02 17:43:17 jkt Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<abstract>
12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
14proceed.
15</abstract>
16
11<version>7.1</version> 17<version>10</version>
12<date>2006-09-04</date> 18<date>2011-08-02</date>
13 19
14<section> 20<section>
15<title>Filesystem Information</title> 21<title>Filesystem Information</title>
16<subsection> 22<subsection>
17<title>What is fstab?</title> 23<title>What is fstab?</title>
67</li> 73</li>
68</ul> 74</ul>
69 75
70<impo> 76<impo>
71The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid 77The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
72fstab file</e>, You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>. 78fstab file</e>. You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
73</impo> 79</impo>
74 80
75<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 81<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
76# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 82# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
77</pre> 83</pre>
83Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 89Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
84partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a 90partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a
85<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it. 91<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it.
86</p> 92</p>
87 93
88<p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/hd')">
89In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
90usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition (or
91<path>/dev/sda*</path> if you use SCSI or SATA drives), with <c>ext2</c> as
92filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
93</p> 94<p>
94
95<p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/sd')">
96In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is 95In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
97usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as 96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
98filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down: 97filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
99</p> 98</p>
100 99
110</p> 109</p>
111 110
112</body> 111</body>
113<body> 112<body>
114 113
115<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='SPARC')"> 114<p>
116Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for 115Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for
117<path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>, for your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if
118you have other partitions or drives, for those too.
119</p>
120
121<p test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
122Add the rules that match your partitioning schema and append rules for
123<path>/proc/openprom</path>, <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c> , for your CD-ROM
124drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives, for those too. 116your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives,
117for those too.
125</p> 118</p>
126 119
127<p> 120<p>
128Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>: 121Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
129</p> 122</p>
130
131<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
132<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
133/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
134/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
135
136none /proc proc defaults 0 0
137none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
138
139/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
140</pre>
141 123
142<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'"> 124<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
143<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 125<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
144/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0 126/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
145/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1 127/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
146 128
147none /proc proc defaults 0 0
148none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
149
150/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 129/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
151</pre>
152 130
131proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
132shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
133</pre>
134
153<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS'"> 135<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
154<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 136<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
155/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0 137/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
156/dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 138/dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
157 139
158none /proc proc defaults 0 0
159none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
160
161/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 140/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
141
142proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
143shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
162</pre> 144</pre>
163 145
164<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'"> 146<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
165/dev/sda1 / ext3 noatime 0 1 147/dev/sda1 / ext3 noatime 0 1
166/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0 148/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
167/dev/sda4 /usr ext3 noatime 0 2 149/dev/sda4 /usr ext3 noatime 0 2
168/dev/sda5 /var ext3 noatime 0 2 150/dev/sda5 /var ext3 noatime 0 2
169/dev/sda6 /home ext3 noatime 0 2 151/dev/sda6 /home ext3 noatime 0 2
170 152
153<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment>
171none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0 154openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
172none /proc proc defaults 0 0
173none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
174 155
175/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 156/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
176</pre>
177 157
178<note test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'"> 158proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
179There are important variations between PPC machine types. Please make sure you 159shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
180adapt the following example to your system. 160</pre>
181</note>
182 161
183<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'"> 162<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or
184/dev/hda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1 163func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
185/dev/hda3 none swap sw 0 0
186
187none /proc proc defaults 0 0
188none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
189
190/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
191</pre>
192
193<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
194/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1 164/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
195/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0 165/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
196 166
197none /proc proc defaults 0 0
198none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
199
200/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 167/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
168
169proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
170shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
201</pre> 171</pre>
202 172
203<p> 173<p>
204<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for 174<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
205removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and 175removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
220</subsection> 190</subsection>
221</section> 191</section>
222<section> 192<section>
223<title>Networking Information</title> 193<title>Networking Information</title>
224<subsection> 194<subsection>
225<title>Host name</title> 195<title>Host name, Domainname, etc</title>
226<body> 196<body>
227 197
228<p> 198<p>
229One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be 199One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
230quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the 200quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
238 208
239<comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your host name)</comment> 209<comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your host name)</comment>
240HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>" 210HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>"
241</pre> 211</pre>
242 212
213<p>
214Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>.
215You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you
216have a DNS server but not a DHCP server. You don't need to worry about DNS or
217domainnames if your networking is setup for DHCP.
218</p>
219
220<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
221# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
222
223<comment>(Set the dns_domain variable to your domain name)</comment>
224dns_domain_lo="<i>homenetwork</i>"
225</pre>
226
227<note>
228If you choose not to set a domainname, you can get rid of the "This is
229hostname.(none)" messages at your login screen by editing
230<path>/etc/issue</path>. Just delete the string <c>.\O</c> from that file.
231</note>
232
233<p>
234If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
235one), you need to define that one too:
236</p>
237
238<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
239# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
240
241<comment>(Set the nis_domain variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
242nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
243</pre>
244
245<note>
246For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
247provided in <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. Also, you may want to emerge
248<c>openresolv</c> to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
249</note>
250
243</body> 251</body>
244</subsection> 252</subsection>
245<subsection> 253<subsection>
246<title>Configuring your Network</title> 254<title>Configuring your Network</title>
247<body> 255<body>
266commented example that covers many different configurations is available in 274commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
267<path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. 275<path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>.
268</p> 276</p>
269 277
270<p> 278<p>
271DHCP is used by default and does not require any further configuration. 279DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
280client. This is described later in <uri
281link="?part=1&amp;chap=9#networking-tools">Installing Necessary System
282Tools</uri>. Do not forget to install a DHCP client.
272</p> 283</p>
273 284
274<p> 285<p>
275If you need to configure your network connection either because you need 286If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
276specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open 287specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
298to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>: 309to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
299</p> 310</p>
300 311
301<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0"> 312<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
302config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" ) 313config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" )
303routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" ) 314routes_eth0=( "default via 192.168.0.1" )
304</pre> 315</pre>
305 316
306<p> 317<p>
307To use DHCP and add specific DHCP options, define <c>config_eth0</c> and 318To use DHCP, define <c>config_eth0</c>:
308<c>dhcp_eth0</c>:
309</p> 319</p>
310 320
311<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0"> 321<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
312config_eth0=( "dhcp" ) 322config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
313dhcp_eth0="nodns nontp nonis"
314</pre> 323</pre>
315 324
316<p> 325<p>
317Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available 326Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available
318options. 327options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if you need to set
328specific DHCP options.
319</p> 329</p>
320 330
321<p> 331<p>
322If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for 332If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
323<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc. 333<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
333<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 343<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
334<body> 344<body>
335 345
336<p> 346<p>
337To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the 347To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
338default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 348default runlevel.
339the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
340</p> 349</p>
341 350
342<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 351<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
352# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
353# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth0</i>
343# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i> 354# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
344</pre> 355</pre>
345 356
346<p> 357<p>
347If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate 358If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
348<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can 359<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. just like you did with
349use <c>ln</c> to do this: 360<path>net.eth0</path>.
350</p>
351
352<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
353# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
354# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth1</i>
355# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
356</pre> 361</p>
357 362
358</body> 363</body>
359</subsection> 364</subsection>
360<subsection> 365<subsection>
361<title>Writing Down Network Information</title> 366<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
398<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'"> 403<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
399<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title> 404<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
400<body> 405<body>
401 406
402<p> 407<p>
403PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also 408PCMCIA users should first install the <c>pcmciautils</c> package.
404includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
405using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
406to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
407</p> 409</p>
408 410
409<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 411<pre caption="Installing pcmciautils">
410# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i> 412# <i>emerge pcmciautils</i>
411</pre>
412
413<p>
414When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
415runlevel:
416</p>
417
418<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
419# <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
420</pre> 413</pre>
421 414
422</body> 415</body>
423</subsection> 416</subsection>
424</section> 417</section>
433First we set the root password by typing: 426First we set the root password by typing:
434</p> 427</p>
435 428
436<pre caption="Setting the root password"> 429<pre caption="Setting the root password">
437# <i>passwd</i> 430# <i>passwd</i>
438</pre>
439
440<p>
441If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
442<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
443</p>
444
445<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
446# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
447</pre> 431</pre>
448 432
449</body> 433</body>
450</subsection> 434</subsection>
451<subsection> 435<subsection>
483<p> 467<p>
484Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong 468Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong
485<c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard. 469<c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
486</p> 470</p>
487 471
488<note test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
489Users of USB-based SPARC systems and SPARC clones might need to select an i386
490keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
491</note>
492
493<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'"> 472<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
494PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB 473PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems.
495keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to
496set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
497</note> 474</note>
498 475
499<p> 476<p>
500When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and 477When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
501exit. 478exit.
511</pre> 488</pre>
512 489
513<p> 490<p>
514If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> 491If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c>
515to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew. 492to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
493</p>
494
495<p>
496You should define the timezone that you previously copied to
497<path>/etc/localtime</path> so that further upgrades of the
498<c>sys-libs/timezone-data</c> package can update <path>/etc/localtime</path>
499automatically. For instance, if you used the GMT timezone, you would add
500<c>TIMEZONE="GMT"</c>
516</p> 501</p>
517 502
518<p> 503<p>
519When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and 504When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and
520exit. 505exit.

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