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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.109 2012/02/22 21:27:45 swift Exp $ -->
8
1<sections> 9<sections>
2<section>
3<title>Timezone</title>
4<body>
5 10
6<p> 11<abstract>
7<path>/etc/localtime</path>. 12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
8</p> 13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
14proceed.
15</abstract>
9 16
10</body> 17<version>16</version>
11</section> 18<date>2012-02-22</date>
19
12<section> 20<section>
13<title>Filesystem Information</title> 21<title>Filesystem Information</title>
14<body> 22<subsection>
15 23<title>What is fstab?</title>
16<p>
17<path>/etc/fstab</path>
18</p>
19
20</body> 24<body>
25
26<p>
27Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
28<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mount points of those partitions
29(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
30and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
31them or not, etc.)
32</p>
33
34</body>
35</subsection>
36<subsection>
37<title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
38<body>
39
40<p>
41<path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
42fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
43its own meaning:
44</p>
45
46<ul>
47<li>
48 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
49 file)
50</li>
51<li>
52 The second field shows the <b>mount point</b> at which the partition should be
53 mounted
54</li>
55<li>
56 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
57</li>
58<li>
59 The fourth field shows the <b>mount options</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
60 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mount options,
61 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
62 listing. Multiple mount options are comma-separated.
63</li>
64<li>
65 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
66 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
67</li>
68<li>
69 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
70 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
71 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
72 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
73</li>
74</ul>
75
76<impo>
77The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
78fstab file</e>. You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
79</impo>
80
81<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
82# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
83</pre>
84
85</body>
86<body test="func:keyval('/boot')">
87
88<p>
89Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
90partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a
91<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it.
92</p>
93
94<p>
95In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
97filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
98</p>
99
100<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
101<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
102</pre>
103
104<p>
105Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
106automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
107substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
108manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
109</p>
110
111</body>
112<body>
113
114<p>
115Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for
116your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives,
117for those too.
118</p>
119
120<p>
121Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
122</p>
123
124<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
125<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
126/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
127/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
128
129/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
130
131proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
132shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
133</pre>
134
135<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
136<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
137/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
138/dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
139
140/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
141
142proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
143shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
144</pre>
145
146<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
147/dev/sda1 / ext3 noatime 0 1
148/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
149/dev/sda4 /usr ext3 noatime 0 2
150/dev/sda5 /var ext3 noatime 0 2
151/dev/sda6 /home ext3 noatime 0 2
152
153<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment>
154openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
155
156/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
157
158proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
159shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
160</pre>
161
162<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or
163func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
164/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
165/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
166
167/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
168
169proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
170shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
171</pre>
172
173<p>
174<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
175removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
176<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
177</p>
178
179<p>
180To improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
181mount option, which results in a faster system since access times
182aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway).
183</p>
184
185<p>
186Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
187</p>
188
189</body>
190</subsection>
21</section> 191</section>
22<section> 192<section>
23<title>Networking Information</title> 193<title>Networking Information</title>
24<body> 194<subsection>
25 195<title>Host name, Domainname, etc</title>
26<p>
27<path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>, <c>rc-update add net.eth0</c>,
28PCMCIA-information etc.
29</p>
30
31</body> 196<body>
197
198<p>
199One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
200quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
201appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
202choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
203<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
204</p>
205
206<pre caption="Setting the host name">
207# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
208
209<comment>(Set the hostname variable to your host name)</comment>
210hostname="<i>tux</i>"
211</pre>
212
213<p>
214Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>.
215You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you
216have a DNS server but not a DHCP server. You don't need to worry about DNS or
217domainnames if your networking is setup for DHCP.
218</p>
219
220<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
221# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
222
223<comment>(Set the dns_domain variable to your domain name)</comment>
224dns_domain_lo="<i>homenetwork</i>"
225</pre>
226
227<note>
228If you choose not to set a domainname, you can get rid of the "This is
229hostname.(none)" messages at your login screen by editing
230<path>/etc/issue</path>. Just delete the string <c>.\O</c> from that file.
231</note>
232
233<p>
234If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
235one), you need to define that one too:
236</p>
237
238<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
239# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
240
241<comment>(Set the nis_domain variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
242nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
243</pre>
244
245<note>
246For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
247provided in <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> which
248can be read using <c>bzless</c>. Also, you may want to emerge <c>openresolv</c>
249to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
250</note>
251
252</body>
253</subsection>
254<subsection>
255<title>Configuring your Network</title>
256<body>
257
258<p>
259Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
260that the networking you set up in the beginning of the Gentoo installation was
261just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
262your Gentoo system permanently.
263</p>
264
265<note>
266More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
267bonding, bridging, 802.1Q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
268link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
269</note>
270
271<p>
272All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
273a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
274networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
275commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
276<path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path>.
277</p>
278
279<p>
280DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
281client. This is described later in <uri
282link="?part=1&amp;chap=9#networking-tools">Installing Necessary System
283Tools</uri>. Do not forget to install a DHCP client.
284</p>
285
286<p>
287If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
288specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
289<path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> is used in
290this example):
291</p>
292
293<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
294# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
295</pre>
296
297<p>
298You will see the following file:
299</p>
300
301<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
302# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
303# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
304# please review /usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2 and save
305# your configuration in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
306</pre>
307
308<p>
309To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
310to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
311</p>
312
313<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
314config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255"
315routes_eth0="default via 192.168.0.1"
316</pre>
317
318<p>
319To use DHCP, define <c>config_eth0</c>:
320</p>
321
322<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
323config_eth0="dhcp"
324</pre>
325
326<p>
327Please read <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> for a
328list of all available options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if
329you need to set specific DHCP options.
330</p>
331
332<p>
333If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
334<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
335</p>
336
337<p>
338Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
339</p>
340
341</body>
342</subsection>
343<subsection>
344<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
345<body>
346
347<p>
348To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
349default runlevel.
350</p>
351
352<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
353# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
354# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth0</i>
355# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
356</pre>
357
358<p>
359If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
360<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. just like you did with
361<path>net.eth0</path>.
362</p>
363
364</body>
365</subsection>
366<subsection>
367<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
368<body>
369
370<p>
371You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
372<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving host names to IP addresses for
373hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. You need to define your system.
374You may also want to define other systems on your network if you don't want to
375set up your own internal DNS system.
376</p>
377
378<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
379# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
380</pre>
381
382<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
383<comment>(This defines the current system)</comment>
384127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
385
386<comment>(Define extra systems on your network,
387they need to have a static IP to be defined this way.)</comment>
388192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
389192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
390</pre>
391
392<p>
393Save and exit the editor to continue.
394</p>
395
396<p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
397If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
398link="#sysinfo">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
399following topic on PCMCIA.
400</p>
401
402</body>
403</subsection>
404<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
405<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
406<body>
407
408<p>
409PCMCIA users should first install the <c>pcmciautils</c> package.
410</p>
411
412<pre caption="Installing pcmciautils">
413# <i>emerge pcmciautils</i>
414</pre>
415
416</body>
417</subsection>
32</section> 418</section>
33<section> 419
420<section id="sysinfo">
34<title>System Information</title> 421<title>System Information</title>
35<body> 422<subsection>
36 423<title>Root Password</title>
37<p>
38<path>/etc/rc.conf</path>
39</p>
40
41</body> 424<body>
425
426<p>
427First we set the root password by typing:
428</p>
429
430<pre caption="Setting the root password">
431# <i>passwd</i>
432</pre>
433
434</body>
435</subsection>
436<subsection>
437<title>System Information</title>
438<body>
439
440<p>
441Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
442Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
443</p>
444
445<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
446# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
447</pre>
448
449<p>
450When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit.
451</p>
452
453<p>
454As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
455configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
456define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
457</p>
458
459<p>
460Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
461Edit it to configure your keyboard.
462</p>
463
464<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
465# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
466</pre>
467
468<p>
469Take special care with the <c>keymap</c> variable. If you select the wrong
470<c>keymap</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
471</p>
472
473<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
474PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems.
475</note>
476
477<p>
478When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
479exit.
480</p>
481
482<p>
483Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
484according to your needs.
485</p>
486
487<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/hwclock">
488# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock</i>
489</pre>
490
491<p>
492If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>clock="local"</c>
493to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
494</p>
495
496<p>
497When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path>, save and
498exit.
499</p>
500
501<p>
502You should define the timezone that you previously copied to
503<path>/etc/localtime</path> in the <path>/etc/timezone</path> file so that
504further upgrades of the <c>sys-libs/timezone-data</c> package can update
505<path>/etc/localtime</path> automatically. For instance, if you used the
506Europe/Brussels timezone, you would write <c>Europe/Brussels</c> in the
507<path>/etc/timezone</path> file.
508</p>
509
510<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
511Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
512Tools</uri>.
513</p>
514
515</body>
516</subsection>
517<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
518<title>Configuring the Console</title>
519<body>
520
521<p>
522If you are using a virtual console, you must uncomment the appropriate line in
523<path>/etc/inittab</path> for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
524</p>
525
526<pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab">
527hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0
528hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0
529</pre>
530
531<p>
532You should also take this time to verify that the appropriate console is
533listed in <path>/etc/securetty</path>.
534</p>
535
536<p>
537You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
538System Tools</uri>.
539</p>
540
541</body>
542</subsection>
42</section> 543</section>
43</sections> 544</sections>

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