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2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.87 2006/11/02 23:29:27 neysx Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.109 2012/02/22 21:27:45 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<abstract> 11<abstract>
12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter 12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to 13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
14proceed. 14proceed.
15</abstract> 15</abstract>
16 16
17<version>7.5</version> 17<version>16</version>
18<date>2006-11-02</date> 18<date>2012-02-22</date>
19 19
20<section> 20<section>
21<title>Filesystem Information</title> 21<title>Filesystem Information</title>
22<subsection> 22<subsection>
23<title>What is fstab?</title> 23<title>What is fstab?</title>
73</li> 73</li>
74</ul> 74</ul>
75 75
76<impo> 76<impo>
77The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid 77The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
78fstab file</e>, You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>. 78fstab file</e>. You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
79</impo> 79</impo>
80 80
81<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 81<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
82# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 82# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
83</pre> 83</pre>
89Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 89Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
90partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a 90partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a
91<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it. 91<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it.
92</p> 92</p>
93 93
94<p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/hd')">
95In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition (or
97<path>/dev/sda*</path> if you use SCSI or SATA drives), with <c>ext2</c> as
98filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
99</p> 94<p>
100
101<p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/sd')">
102In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is 95In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
103usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as 96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
104filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down: 97filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
105</p> 98</p>
106 99
116</p> 109</p>
117 110
118</body> 111</body>
119<body> 112<body>
120 113
121<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='SPARC')"> 114<p>
122Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for 115Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for
123<path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>, for your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if
124you have other partitions or drives, for those too.
125</p>
126
127<p test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
128Add the rules that match your partitioning schema and append rules for
129<path>/proc/openprom</path>, <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c> , for your CD-ROM
130drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives, for those too. 116your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives,
117for those too.
131</p> 118</p>
132 119
133<p> 120<p>
134Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>: 121Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
135</p> 122</p>
136
137<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
138<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
139/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
140/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
141
142proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
143shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
144
145/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
146</pre>
147 123
148<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'"> 124<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
149<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 125<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
150/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0 126/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
151/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1 127/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
152 128
129/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
130
153proc /proc proc defaults 0 0 131proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
154shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0 132shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
155
156/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
157</pre> 133</pre>
158 134
159<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS'"> 135<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
160<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 136<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
161/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0 137/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
162/dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 138/dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
163 139
140/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
141
164proc /proc proc defaults 0 0 142proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
165shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0 143shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
166
167/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
168</pre> 144</pre>
169 145
170<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'"> 146<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
171/dev/sda1 / ext3 noatime 0 1 147/dev/sda1 / ext3 noatime 0 1
172/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0 148/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
173/dev/sda4 /usr ext3 noatime 0 2 149/dev/sda4 /usr ext3 noatime 0 2
174/dev/sda5 /var ext3 noatime 0 2 150/dev/sda5 /var ext3 noatime 0 2
175/dev/sda6 /home ext3 noatime 0 2 151/dev/sda6 /home ext3 noatime 0 2
176 152
153<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment>
177openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0 154openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
178proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
179shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
180 155
181/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 156/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
182</pre>
183
184<note test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'">
185There are important variations between PPC machine types. Please make sure you
186adapt the following example to your system.
187</note>
188
189<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'">
190/dev/hda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
191/dev/hda3 none swap sw 0 0
192 157
193proc /proc proc defaults 0 0 158proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
194shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0 159shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
195
196/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
197</pre> 160</pre>
198 161
199<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'"> 162<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or
163func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
200/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1 164/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
201/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0 165/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
202 166
167/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
168
203proc /proc proc defaults 0 0 169proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
204shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0 170shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
205
206/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
207</pre> 171</pre>
208 172
209<p> 173<p>
210<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for 174<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
211removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and 175removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
240</p> 204</p>
241 205
242<pre caption="Setting the host name"> 206<pre caption="Setting the host name">
243# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i> 207# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
244 208
245<comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your host name)</comment> 209<comment>(Set the hostname variable to your host name)</comment>
246HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>" 210hostname="<i>tux</i>"
247</pre> 211</pre>
248 212
249<p> 213<p>
250Second we set the domainname in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>: 214Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>.
215You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you
216have a DNS server but not a DHCP server. You don't need to worry about DNS or
217domainnames if your networking is setup for DHCP.
251</p> 218</p>
252 219
253<pre caption="Setting the domainname"> 220<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
254# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i> 221# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
255 222
256<comment>(Set the dns_domain variable to your domain name)</comment> 223<comment>(Set the dns_domain variable to your domain name)</comment>
257dns_domain_lo="<i>homenetwork</i>" 224dns_domain_lo="<i>homenetwork</i>"
258</pre> 225</pre>
259 226
227<note>
228If you choose not to set a domainname, you can get rid of the "This is
229hostname.(none)" messages at your login screen by editing
230<path>/etc/issue</path>. Just delete the string <c>.\O</c> from that file.
231</note>
232
260<p> 233<p>
261If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have 234If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
262one), you need to define that one too: 235one), you need to define that one too:
263</p> 236</p>
264 237
269nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>" 242nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
270</pre> 243</pre>
271 244
272<note> 245<note>
273For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples 246For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
274provided in <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. 247provided in <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> which
248can be read using <c>bzless</c>. Also, you may want to emerge <c>openresolv</c>
249to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
275</note> 250</note>
276 251
277</body> 252</body>
278</subsection> 253</subsection>
279<subsection> 254<subsection>
296<p> 271<p>
297All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 272All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
298a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up 273a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
299networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully 274networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
300commented example that covers many different configurations is available in 275commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
301<path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. 276<path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path>.
302</p> 277</p>
303 278
304<p> 279<p>
305DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP 280DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
306client. This is described later in <uri 281client. This is described later in <uri
324</p> 299</p>
325 300
326<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net"> 301<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
327# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.* 302# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
328# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration, 303# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
329# please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration 304# please review /usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2 and save
330# in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!). 305# your configuration in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
331</pre> 306</pre>
332 307
333<p> 308<p>
334To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need 309To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
335to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>: 310to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
336</p> 311</p>
337 312
338<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0"> 313<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
339config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" ) 314config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255"
340routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" ) 315routes_eth0="default via 192.168.0.1"
341</pre> 316</pre>
342 317
343<p> 318<p>
344To use DHCP and add specific DHCP options, define <c>config_eth0</c> and 319To use DHCP, define <c>config_eth0</c>:
345<c>dhcp_eth0</c>:
346</p> 320</p>
347 321
348<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0"> 322<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
349config_eth0=( "dhcp" ) 323config_eth0="dhcp"
350dhcp_eth0="nodns nontp nonis"
351</pre> 324</pre>
352 325
353<p> 326<p>
354Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available 327Please read <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> for a
355options. 328list of all available options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if
329you need to set specific DHCP options.
356</p> 330</p>
357 331
358<p> 332<p>
359If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for 333If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
360<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc. 334<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
370<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 344<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
371<body> 345<body>
372 346
373<p> 347<p>
374To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the 348To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
375default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 349default runlevel.
376the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
377</p> 350</p>
378 351
379<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 352<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
353# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
354# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth0</i>
380# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i> 355# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
381</pre> 356</pre>
382 357
383<p> 358<p>
384If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate 359If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
385<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can 360<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. just like you did with
386use <c>ln</c> to do this: 361<path>net.eth0</path>.
387</p>
388
389<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
390# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
391# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth1</i>
392# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
393</pre> 362</p>
394 363
395</body> 364</body>
396</subsection> 365</subsection>
397<subsection> 366<subsection>
398<title>Writing Down Network Information</title> 367<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
435<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'"> 404<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
436<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title> 405<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
437<body> 406<body>
438 407
439<p> 408<p>
440PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also 409PCMCIA users should first install the <c>pcmciautils</c> package.
441includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
442using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
443to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
444</p> 410</p>
445 411
446<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 412<pre caption="Installing pcmciautils">
447# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i> 413# <i>emerge pcmciautils</i>
448</pre>
449
450<p>
451When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
452runlevel:
453</p>
454
455<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
456# <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
457</pre> 414</pre>
458 415
459</body> 416</body>
460</subsection> 417</subsection>
461</section> 418</section>
470First we set the root password by typing: 427First we set the root password by typing:
471</p> 428</p>
472 429
473<pre caption="Setting the root password"> 430<pre caption="Setting the root password">
474# <i>passwd</i> 431# <i>passwd</i>
475</pre>
476
477<p>
478If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
479<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
480</p>
481
482<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
483# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
484</pre> 432</pre>
485 433
486</body> 434</body>
487</subsection> 435</subsection>
488<subsection> 436<subsection>
516<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps"> 464<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
517# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i> 465# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
518</pre> 466</pre>
519 467
520<p> 468<p>
521Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong 469Take special care with the <c>keymap</c> variable. If you select the wrong
522<c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard. 470<c>keymap</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
523</p> 471</p>
524
525<note test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
526Users of USB-based SPARC systems and SPARC clones might need to select an i386
527keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
528</note>
529 472
530<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'"> 473<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
531PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB 474PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems.
532keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to
533set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
534</note> 475</note>
535 476
536<p> 477<p>
537When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and 478When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
538exit. 479exit.
539</p> 480</p>
540 481
541<p> 482<p>
542Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it 483Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
543according to your needs. 484according to your needs.
544</p> 485</p>
545 486
546<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock"> 487<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/hwclock">
547# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i> 488# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock</i>
548</pre> 489</pre>
549 490
550<p> 491<p>
551If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> 492If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>clock="local"</c>
552to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew. 493to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
553</p> 494</p>
554 495
555<p> 496<p>
556When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and 497When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path>, save and
557exit. 498exit.
499</p>
500
501<p>
502You should define the timezone that you previously copied to
503<path>/etc/localtime</path> in the <path>/etc/timezone</path> file so that
504further upgrades of the <c>sys-libs/timezone-data</c> package can update
505<path>/etc/localtime</path> automatically. For instance, if you used the
506Europe/Brussels timezone, you would write <c>Europe/Brussels</c> in the
507<path>/etc/timezone</path> file.
558</p> 508</p>
559 509
560<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')"> 510<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
561Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System 511Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
562Tools</uri>. 512Tools</uri>.

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