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2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.84 2006/09/12 20:07:02 nightmorph Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.111 2012/04/06 12:09:19 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<abstract>
12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
14proceed.
15</abstract>
16
11<version>7.3</version> 17<version>18</version>
12<date>2006-09-12</date> 18<date>2012-04-06</date>
13 19
14<section> 20<section>
15<title>Filesystem Information</title> 21<title>Filesystem Information</title>
16<subsection> 22<subsection>
17<title>What is fstab?</title> 23<title>What is fstab?</title>
67</li> 73</li>
68</ul> 74</ul>
69 75
70<impo> 76<impo>
71The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid 77The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
72fstab file</e>, You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>. 78fstab file</e>. You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
73</impo> 79</impo>
74 80
75<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 81<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
76# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 82# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
77</pre> 83</pre>
83Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 89Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
84partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a 90partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a
85<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it. 91<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it.
86</p> 92</p>
87 93
88<p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/hd')">
89In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
90usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition (or
91<path>/dev/sda*</path> if you use SCSI or SATA drives), with <c>ext2</c> as
92filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
93</p> 94<p>
94
95<p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/sd')">
96In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is 95In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
97usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as 96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
98filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down: 97filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
99</p> 98</p>
100 99
110</p> 109</p>
111 110
112</body> 111</body>
113<body> 112<body>
114 113
115<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='SPARC')"> 114<p>
116Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for 115Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for
117<path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>, for your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if
118you have other partitions or drives, for those too.
119</p>
120
121<p test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
122Add the rules that match your partitioning schema and append rules for
123<path>/proc/openprom</path>, <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c> , for your CD-ROM
124drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives, for those too. 116your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives,
117for those too.
125</p> 118</p>
126 119
127<p> 120<p>
128Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>: 121Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
129</p> 122</p>
130
131<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
132<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
133/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
134/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
135
136none /proc proc defaults 0 0
137none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
138
139/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
140</pre>
141 123
142<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'"> 124<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
143<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 125<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
144/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0 126/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
145/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1 127/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
146 128
147none /proc proc defaults 0 0
148none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
149
150/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 129/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
151</pre>
152 130
131proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
132shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
133</pre>
134
153<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS'"> 135<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
154<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 136<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
155/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0 137/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
156/dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 138/dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
157 139
158none /proc proc defaults 0 0
159none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
160
161/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 140/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
141
142proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
143shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
162</pre> 144</pre>
163 145
164<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'"> 146<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
165/dev/sda1 / ext3 noatime 0 1 147/dev/sda1 / ext3 noatime 0 1
166/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0 148/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
167/dev/sda4 /usr ext3 noatime 0 2 149/dev/sda4 /usr ext3 noatime 0 2
168/dev/sda5 /var ext3 noatime 0 2 150/dev/sda5 /var ext3 noatime 0 2
169/dev/sda6 /home ext3 noatime 0 2 151/dev/sda6 /home ext3 noatime 0 2
170 152
153<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment>
171none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0 154openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
172none /proc proc defaults 0 0
173none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
174 155
175/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 156/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
176</pre>
177 157
178<note test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'"> 158proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
179There are important variations between PPC machine types. Please make sure you 159shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
180adapt the following example to your system. 160</pre>
181</note>
182 161
183<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'"> 162<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or
184/dev/hda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1 163func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
185/dev/hda3 none swap sw 0 0
186
187none /proc proc defaults 0 0
188none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
189
190/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
191</pre>
192
193<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
194/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1 164/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
195/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0 165/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
196 166
197none /proc proc defaults 0 0
198none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
199
200/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 167/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
168
169proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
170shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
201</pre> 171</pre>
202 172
203<p> 173<p>
204<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for 174<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
205removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and 175removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
234</p> 204</p>
235 205
236<pre caption="Setting the host name"> 206<pre caption="Setting the host name">
237# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i> 207# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
238 208
239<comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your host name)</comment> 209<comment>(Set the hostname variable to your host name)</comment>
240HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>" 210hostname="<i>tux</i>"
241</pre> 211</pre>
242 212
243<p> 213<p>
244Second we set the domainname in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>: 214Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>.
215You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you
216have a DNS server but not a DHCP server. You don't need to worry about DNS or
217domainnames if your networking is setup for DHCP.
245</p> 218</p>
246 219
247<pre caption="Setting the domainname"> 220<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
248# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i> 221# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
249 222
250<comment>(Set the dns_domain variable to your domain name)</comment> 223<comment>(Set the dns_domain variable to your domain name)</comment>
251dns_domain_lo="<i>homenetwork</i>" 224dns_domain_lo="<i>homenetwork</i>"
252</pre> 225</pre>
253 226
227<note>
228If you choose not to set a domainname, you can get rid of the "This is
229hostname.(none)" messages at your login screen by editing
230<path>/etc/issue</path>. Just delete the string <c>.\O</c> from that file.
231</note>
232
254<p> 233<p>
255If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have 234If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
256one), you need to define that one too: 235one), you need to define that one too:
257</p> 236</p>
258 237
260# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i> 239# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
261 240
262<comment>(Set the nis_domain variable to your NIS domain name)</comment> 241<comment>(Set the nis_domain variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
263nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>" 242nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
264</pre> 243</pre>
244
245<note>
246For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
247provided in <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> which
248can be read using <c>bzless</c>. Also, you may want to emerge <c>openresolv</c>
249to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
250</note>
265 251
266</body> 252</body>
267</subsection> 253</subsection>
268<subsection> 254<subsection>
269<title>Configuring your Network</title> 255<title>Configuring your Network</title>
285<p> 271<p>
286All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 272All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
287a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up 273a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
288networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully 274networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
289commented example that covers many different configurations is available in 275commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
290<path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. 276<path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path>.
291</p> 277</p>
292 278
293<p> 279<p>
294DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP 280DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
295client. This is described later in <uri 281client. This is described later in <uri
313</p> 299</p>
314 300
315<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net"> 301<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
316# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.* 302# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
317# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration, 303# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
318# please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration 304# please review /usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2 and save
319# in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!). 305# your configuration in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
320</pre> 306</pre>
321 307
322<p> 308<p>
323To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need 309To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
324to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>: 310to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
325</p> 311</p>
326 312
327<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0"> 313<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
328config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" ) 314config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255"
329routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" ) 315routes_eth0="default via 192.168.0.1"
330</pre> 316</pre>
331 317
332<p> 318<p>
333To use DHCP and add specific DHCP options, define <c>config_eth0</c> and 319To use DHCP, define <c>config_eth0</c>:
334<c>dhcp_eth0</c>:
335</p> 320</p>
336 321
337<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0"> 322<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
338config_eth0=( "dhcp" ) 323config_eth0="dhcp"
339dhcp_eth0="nodns nontp nonis"
340</pre> 324</pre>
341 325
342<p> 326<p>
343Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available 327Please read <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> for a
344options. 328list of all available options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if
329you need to set specific DHCP options.
345</p> 330</p>
346 331
347<p> 332<p>
348If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for 333If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
349<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc. 334<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
359<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 344<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
360<body> 345<body>
361 346
362<p> 347<p>
363To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the 348To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
364default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 349default runlevel.
365the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
366</p> 350</p>
367 351
368<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 352<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
353# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
354# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth0</i>
369# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i> 355# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
370</pre> 356</pre>
371 357
372<p> 358<p>
373If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate 359If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
374<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can 360<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. just like you did with
375use <c>ln</c> to do this: 361<path>net.eth0</path>.
376</p>
377
378<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
379# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
380# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth1</i>
381# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
382</pre> 362</p>
383 363
384</body> 364</body>
385</subsection> 365</subsection>
386<subsection> 366<subsection>
387<title>Writing Down Network Information</title> 367<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
424<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'"> 404<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
425<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title> 405<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
426<body> 406<body>
427 407
428<p> 408<p>
429PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also 409PCMCIA users should first install the <c>pcmciautils</c> package.
430includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
431using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
432to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
433</p> 410</p>
434 411
435<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 412<pre caption="Installing pcmciautils">
436# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i> 413# <i>emerge pcmciautils</i>
437</pre>
438
439<p>
440When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
441runlevel:
442</p>
443
444<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
445# <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
446</pre> 414</pre>
447 415
448</body> 416</body>
449</subsection> 417</subsection>
450</section> 418</section>
461 429
462<pre caption="Setting the root password"> 430<pre caption="Setting the root password">
463# <i>passwd</i> 431# <i>passwd</i>
464</pre> 432</pre>
465 433
466<p>
467If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
468<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
469</p>
470
471<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
472# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
473</pre>
474
475</body> 434</body>
476</subsection> 435</subsection>
477<subsection> 436<subsection>
478<title>System Information</title> 437<title>System Information</title>
479<body> 438<body>
480 439
481<p> 440<p>
482Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 441Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to configure the services, startup,
483Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :) 442and shutdown of your system. Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all
443the comments in the file.
484</p> 444</p>
485 445
486<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf"> 446<pre caption="Configuring services">
487# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 447# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
488</pre> 448</pre>
489 449
490<p> 450<p>
491When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit. 451When you're finished configuring these two files, save them and exit.
492</p>
493
494<p>
495As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
496configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
497define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
498</p> 452</p>
499 453
500<p> 454<p>
501Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration. 455Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
502Edit it to configure your keyboard. 456Edit it to configure your keyboard.
505<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps"> 459<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
506# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i> 460# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
507</pre> 461</pre>
508 462
509<p> 463<p>
510Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong 464Take special care with the <c>keymap</c> variable. If you select the wrong
511<c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard. 465<c>keymap</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
512</p> 466</p>
513
514<note test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
515Users of USB-based SPARC systems and SPARC clones might need to select an i386
516keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
517</note>
518 467
519<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'"> 468<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
520PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB 469PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems.
521keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to
522set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
523</note> 470</note>
524 471
525<p> 472<p>
526When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and 473When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
527exit. 474exit.
528</p> 475</p>
529 476
530<p> 477<p>
531Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it 478Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
532according to your needs. 479according to your needs.
533</p> 480</p>
534 481
535<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock"> 482<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/hwclock">
536# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i> 483# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock</i>
537</pre> 484</pre>
538 485
539<p> 486<p>
540If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> 487If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>clock="local"</c>
541to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew. 488to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
542</p> 489</p>
543 490
544<p> 491<p>
545When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and 492When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path>, save and
546exit. 493exit.
494</p>
495
496<p>
497You should define the timezone that you previously copied to
498<path>/etc/localtime</path> in the <path>/etc/timezone</path> file so that
499further upgrades of the <c>sys-libs/timezone-data</c> package can update
500<path>/etc/localtime</path> automatically. For instance, if you used the
501Europe/Brussels timezone, you would write <c>Europe/Brussels</c> in the
502<path>/etc/timezone</path> file.
547</p> 503</p>
548 504
549<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')"> 505<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
550Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System 506Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
551Tools</uri>. 507Tools</uri>.

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