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2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.85 2006/10/21 01:13:51 nightmorph Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.111 2012/04/06 12:09:19 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<abstract>
12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
14proceed.
15</abstract>
16
11<version>7.4</version> 17<version>18</version>
12<date>2006-10-20</date> 18<date>2012-04-06</date>
13 19
14<section> 20<section>
15<title>Filesystem Information</title> 21<title>Filesystem Information</title>
16<subsection> 22<subsection>
17<title>What is fstab?</title> 23<title>What is fstab?</title>
67</li> 73</li>
68</ul> 74</ul>
69 75
70<impo> 76<impo>
71The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid 77The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
72fstab file</e>, You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>. 78fstab file</e>. You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
73</impo> 79</impo>
74 80
75<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 81<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
76# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 82# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
77</pre> 83</pre>
83Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 89Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
84partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a 90partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a
85<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it. 91<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it.
86</p> 92</p>
87 93
88<p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/hd')">
89In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
90usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition (or
91<path>/dev/sda*</path> if you use SCSI or SATA drives), with <c>ext2</c> as
92filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
93</p> 94<p>
94
95<p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/sd')">
96In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is 95In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
97usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as 96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
98filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down: 97filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
99</p> 98</p>
100 99
110</p> 109</p>
111 110
112</body> 111</body>
113<body> 112<body>
114 113
115<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='SPARC')"> 114<p>
116Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for 115Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for
117<path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>, for your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if
118you have other partitions or drives, for those too.
119</p>
120
121<p test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
122Add the rules that match your partitioning schema and append rules for
123<path>/proc/openprom</path>, <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c> , for your CD-ROM
124drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives, for those too. 116your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives,
117for those too.
125</p> 118</p>
126 119
127<p> 120<p>
128Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>: 121Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
129</p> 122</p>
130
131<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
132<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
133/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
134/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
135
136none /proc proc defaults 0 0
137none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
138
139/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
140</pre>
141 123
142<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'"> 124<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
143<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 125<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
144/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0 126/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
145/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1 127/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
146 128
147none /proc proc defaults 0 0
148none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
149
150/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 129/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
151</pre>
152 130
131proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
132shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
133</pre>
134
153<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS'"> 135<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
154<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 136<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
155/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0 137/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
156/dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 138/dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
157 139
158none /proc proc defaults 0 0
159none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
160
161/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 140/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
141
142proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
143shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
162</pre> 144</pre>
163 145
164<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'"> 146<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
165/dev/sda1 / ext3 noatime 0 1 147/dev/sda1 / ext3 noatime 0 1
166/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0 148/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
167/dev/sda4 /usr ext3 noatime 0 2 149/dev/sda4 /usr ext3 noatime 0 2
168/dev/sda5 /var ext3 noatime 0 2 150/dev/sda5 /var ext3 noatime 0 2
169/dev/sda6 /home ext3 noatime 0 2 151/dev/sda6 /home ext3 noatime 0 2
170 152
153<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment>
171none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0 154openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
172none /proc proc defaults 0 0
173none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
174 155
175/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 156/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
176</pre>
177 157
178<note test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'"> 158proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
179There are important variations between PPC machine types. Please make sure you 159shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
180adapt the following example to your system. 160</pre>
181</note>
182 161
183<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'"> 162<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or
184/dev/hda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1 163func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
185/dev/hda3 none swap sw 0 0
186
187none /proc proc defaults 0 0
188none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
189
190/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
191</pre>
192
193<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
194/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1 164/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
195/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0 165/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
196 166
197none /proc proc defaults 0 0
198none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
199
200/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 167/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
168
169proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
170shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
201</pre> 171</pre>
202 172
203<p> 173<p>
204<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for 174<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
205removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and 175removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
234</p> 204</p>
235 205
236<pre caption="Setting the host name"> 206<pre caption="Setting the host name">
237# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i> 207# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
238 208
239<comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your host name)</comment> 209<comment>(Set the hostname variable to your host name)</comment>
240HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>" 210hostname="<i>tux</i>"
241</pre> 211</pre>
242 212
243<p> 213<p>
244Second we set the domainname in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>: 214Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>.
215You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you
216have a DNS server but not a DHCP server. You don't need to worry about DNS or
217domainnames if your networking is setup for DHCP.
245</p> 218</p>
246 219
247<pre caption="Setting the domainname"> 220<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
248# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i> 221# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
249 222
250<comment>(Set the dns_domain variable to your domain name)</comment> 223<comment>(Set the dns_domain variable to your domain name)</comment>
251dns_domain_lo="<i>homenetwork</i>" 224dns_domain_lo="<i>homenetwork</i>"
252</pre> 225</pre>
253 226
227<note>
228If you choose not to set a domainname, you can get rid of the "This is
229hostname.(none)" messages at your login screen by editing
230<path>/etc/issue</path>. Just delete the string <c>.\O</c> from that file.
231</note>
232
254<p> 233<p>
255If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have 234If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
256one), you need to define that one too: 235one), you need to define that one too:
257</p> 236</p>
258 237
263nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>" 242nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
264</pre> 243</pre>
265 244
266<note> 245<note>
267For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples 246For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
268provided in <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. 247provided in <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> which
248can be read using <c>bzless</c>. Also, you may want to emerge <c>openresolv</c>
249to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
269</note> 250</note>
270 251
271</body> 252</body>
272</subsection> 253</subsection>
273<subsection> 254<subsection>
290<p> 271<p>
291All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 272All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
292a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up 273a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
293networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully 274networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
294commented example that covers many different configurations is available in 275commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
295<path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. 276<path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path>.
296</p> 277</p>
297 278
298<p> 279<p>
299DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP 280DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
300client. This is described later in <uri 281client. This is described later in <uri
318</p> 299</p>
319 300
320<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net"> 301<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
321# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.* 302# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
322# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration, 303# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
323# please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration 304# please review /usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2 and save
324# in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!). 305# your configuration in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
325</pre> 306</pre>
326 307
327<p> 308<p>
328To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need 309To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
329to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>: 310to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
330</p> 311</p>
331 312
332<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0"> 313<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
333config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" ) 314config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255"
334routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" ) 315routes_eth0="default via 192.168.0.1"
335</pre> 316</pre>
336 317
337<p> 318<p>
338To use DHCP and add specific DHCP options, define <c>config_eth0</c> and 319To use DHCP, define <c>config_eth0</c>:
339<c>dhcp_eth0</c>:
340</p> 320</p>
341 321
342<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0"> 322<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
343config_eth0=( "dhcp" ) 323config_eth0="dhcp"
344dhcp_eth0="nodns nontp nonis"
345</pre> 324</pre>
346 325
347<p> 326<p>
348Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available 327Please read <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> for a
349options. 328list of all available options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if
329you need to set specific DHCP options.
350</p> 330</p>
351 331
352<p> 332<p>
353If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for 333If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
354<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc. 334<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
364<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 344<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
365<body> 345<body>
366 346
367<p> 347<p>
368To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the 348To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
369default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 349default runlevel.
370the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
371</p> 350</p>
372 351
373<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 352<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
353# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
354# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth0</i>
374# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i> 355# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
375</pre> 356</pre>
376 357
377<p> 358<p>
378If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate 359If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
379<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can 360<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. just like you did with
380use <c>ln</c> to do this: 361<path>net.eth0</path>.
381</p>
382
383<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
384# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
385# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth1</i>
386# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
387</pre> 362</p>
388 363
389</body> 364</body>
390</subsection> 365</subsection>
391<subsection> 366<subsection>
392<title>Writing Down Network Information</title> 367<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
429<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'"> 404<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
430<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title> 405<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
431<body> 406<body>
432 407
433<p> 408<p>
434PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also 409PCMCIA users should first install the <c>pcmciautils</c> package.
435includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
436using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
437to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
438</p> 410</p>
439 411
440<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 412<pre caption="Installing pcmciautils">
441# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i> 413# <i>emerge pcmciautils</i>
442</pre>
443
444<p>
445When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
446runlevel:
447</p>
448
449<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
450# <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
451</pre> 414</pre>
452 415
453</body> 416</body>
454</subsection> 417</subsection>
455</section> 418</section>
466 429
467<pre caption="Setting the root password"> 430<pre caption="Setting the root password">
468# <i>passwd</i> 431# <i>passwd</i>
469</pre> 432</pre>
470 433
471<p>
472If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
473<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
474</p>
475
476<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
477# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
478</pre>
479
480</body> 434</body>
481</subsection> 435</subsection>
482<subsection> 436<subsection>
483<title>System Information</title> 437<title>System Information</title>
484<body> 438<body>
485 439
486<p> 440<p>
487Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 441Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to configure the services, startup,
488Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :) 442and shutdown of your system. Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all
443the comments in the file.
489</p> 444</p>
490 445
491<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf"> 446<pre caption="Configuring services">
492# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 447# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
493</pre> 448</pre>
494 449
495<p> 450<p>
496When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit. 451When you're finished configuring these two files, save them and exit.
497</p>
498
499<p>
500As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
501configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
502define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
503</p> 452</p>
504 453
505<p> 454<p>
506Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration. 455Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
507Edit it to configure your keyboard. 456Edit it to configure your keyboard.
510<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps"> 459<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
511# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i> 460# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
512</pre> 461</pre>
513 462
514<p> 463<p>
515Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong 464Take special care with the <c>keymap</c> variable. If you select the wrong
516<c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard. 465<c>keymap</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
517</p> 466</p>
518
519<note test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
520Users of USB-based SPARC systems and SPARC clones might need to select an i386
521keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
522</note>
523 467
524<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'"> 468<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
525PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB 469PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems.
526keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to
527set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
528</note> 470</note>
529 471
530<p> 472<p>
531When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and 473When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
532exit. 474exit.
533</p> 475</p>
534 476
535<p> 477<p>
536Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it 478Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
537according to your needs. 479according to your needs.
538</p> 480</p>
539 481
540<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock"> 482<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/hwclock">
541# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i> 483# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock</i>
542</pre> 484</pre>
543 485
544<p> 486<p>
545If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> 487If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>clock="local"</c>
546to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew. 488to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
547</p> 489</p>
548 490
549<p> 491<p>
550When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and 492When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path>, save and
551exit. 493exit.
494</p>
495
496<p>
497You should define the timezone that you previously copied to
498<path>/etc/localtime</path> in the <path>/etc/timezone</path> file so that
499further upgrades of the <c>sys-libs/timezone-data</c> package can update
500<path>/etc/localtime</path> automatically. For instance, if you used the
501Europe/Brussels timezone, you would write <c>Europe/Brussels</c> in the
502<path>/etc/timezone</path> file.
552</p> 503</p>
553 504
554<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')"> 505<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
555Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System 506Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
556Tools</uri>. 507Tools</uri>.

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