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3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
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7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.95 2007/08/01 18:12:47 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.111 2012/04/06 12:09:19 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<abstract> 11<abstract>
12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter 12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to 13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
14proceed. 14proceed.
15</abstract> 15</abstract>
16 16
17<version>8.3</version> 17<version>18</version>
18<date>2007-08-01</date> 18<date>2012-04-06</date>
19 19
20<section> 20<section>
21<title>Filesystem Information</title> 21<title>Filesystem Information</title>
22<subsection> 22<subsection>
23<title>What is fstab?</title> 23<title>What is fstab?</title>
89Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 89Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
90partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a 90partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a
91<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it. 91<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it.
92</p> 92</p>
93 93
94<p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/hd')">
95In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition (or
97<path>/dev/sda*</path> if you use SCSI or SATA drives), with <c>ext2</c> as
98filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
99</p> 94<p>
100
101<p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/sd')">
102In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is 95In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
103usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as 96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
104filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down: 97filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
105</p> 98</p>
106 99
116</p> 109</p>
117 110
118</body> 111</body>
119<body> 112<body>
120 113
121<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='SPARC')"> 114<p>
122Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for 115Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for
123your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives, 116your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives,
124for those too. 117for those too.
125</p> 118</p>
126 119
127<p test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
128Add the rules that match your partitioning schema and append rules for
129<path>/proc/openprom</path>, for your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if
130you have other partitions or drives, for those too.
131</p>
132
133<p> 120<p>
134Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>: 121Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
135</p> 122</p>
136
137<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
138<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
139/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
140/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
141
142/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
143</pre>
144 123
145<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'"> 124<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
146<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 125<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
147/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0 126/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
148/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1 127/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
149 128
150/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 129/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
151</pre>
152 130
131proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
132shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
133</pre>
134
153<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS'"> 135<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
154<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 136<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
155/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0 137/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
156/dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 138/dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
157 139
158/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 140/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
141
142proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
143shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
159</pre> 144</pre>
160 145
161<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'"> 146<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
162/dev/sda1 / ext3 noatime 0 1 147/dev/sda1 / ext3 noatime 0 1
163/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0 148/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
164/dev/sda4 /usr ext3 noatime 0 2 149/dev/sda4 /usr ext3 noatime 0 2
165/dev/sda5 /var ext3 noatime 0 2 150/dev/sda5 /var ext3 noatime 0 2
166/dev/sda6 /home ext3 noatime 0 2 151/dev/sda6 /home ext3 noatime 0 2
167 152
153<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment>
168openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0 154openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
169 155
170/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 156/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
171</pre>
172 157
173<note test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'"> 158proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
174There are important variations between PPC machine types. Please make sure you 159shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
175adapt the following example to your system. 160</pre>
176</note>
177 161
178<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'"> 162<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or
179/dev/hda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1 163func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
180/dev/hda3 none swap sw 0 0
181
182/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
183</pre>
184
185<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
186/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1 164/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
187/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0 165/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
188 166
189/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 167/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
168
169proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
170shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
190</pre> 171</pre>
191 172
192<p> 173<p>
193<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for 174<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
194removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and 175removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
223</p> 204</p>
224 205
225<pre caption="Setting the host name"> 206<pre caption="Setting the host name">
226# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i> 207# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
227 208
228<comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your host name)</comment> 209<comment>(Set the hostname variable to your host name)</comment>
229HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>" 210hostname="<i>tux</i>"
230</pre> 211</pre>
231 212
232<p> 213<p>
233Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. 214Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>.
234You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you 215You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you
261nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>" 242nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
262</pre> 243</pre>
263 244
264<note> 245<note>
265For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples 246For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
266provided in <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. Also, you may want to emerge 247provided in <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> which
267<c>resolvconf-gentoo</c> to help manage your DNS/NIS setup. 248can be read using <c>bzless</c>. Also, you may want to emerge <c>openresolv</c>
249to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
268</note> 250</note>
269 251
270</body> 252</body>
271</subsection> 253</subsection>
272<subsection> 254<subsection>
289<p> 271<p>
290All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 272All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
291a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up 273a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
292networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully 274networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
293commented example that covers many different configurations is available in 275commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
294<path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. 276<path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path>.
295</p> 277</p>
296 278
297<p> 279<p>
298DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP 280DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
299client. This is described later in <uri 281client. This is described later in <uri
317</p> 299</p>
318 300
319<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net"> 301<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
320# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.* 302# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
321# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration, 303# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
322# please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration 304# please review /usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2 and save
323# in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!). 305# your configuration in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
324</pre> 306</pre>
325 307
326<p> 308<p>
327To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need 309To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
328to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>: 310to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
329</p> 311</p>
330 312
331<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0"> 313<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
332config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" ) 314config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255"
333routes_eth0=( "default via 192.168.0.1" ) 315routes_eth0="default via 192.168.0.1"
334</pre> 316</pre>
335 317
336<p> 318<p>
337To use DHCP and add specific DHCP options, define <c>config_eth0</c> and 319To use DHCP, define <c>config_eth0</c>:
338<c>dhcp_eth0</c>:
339</p> 320</p>
340 321
341<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0"> 322<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
342config_eth0=( "dhcp" ) 323config_eth0="dhcp"
343dhcp_eth0="nodns nontp nonis"
344</pre> 324</pre>
345 325
346<p> 326<p>
347Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available 327Please read <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> for a
348options. 328list of all available options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if
329you need to set specific DHCP options.
349</p> 330</p>
350 331
351<p> 332<p>
352If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for 333If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
353<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc. 334<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
367To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the 348To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
368default runlevel. 349default runlevel.
369</p> 350</p>
370 351
371<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 352<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
353# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
354# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth0</i>
372# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i> 355# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
373</pre> 356</pre>
374 357
375<p> 358<p>
376If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate 359If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
377<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can 360<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. just like you did with
378use <c>ln</c> to do this: 361<path>net.eth0</path>.
379</p>
380
381<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
382# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
383# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth1</i>
384# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
385</pre> 362</p>
386 363
387</body> 364</body>
388</subsection> 365</subsection>
389<subsection> 366<subsection>
390<title>Writing Down Network Information</title> 367<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
459<subsection> 436<subsection>
460<title>System Information</title> 437<title>System Information</title>
461<body> 438<body>
462 439
463<p> 440<p>
464Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 441Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to configure the services, startup,
465Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :) 442and shutdown of your system. Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all
443the comments in the file.
466</p> 444</p>
467 445
468<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf"> 446<pre caption="Configuring services">
469# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 447# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
470</pre> 448</pre>
471 449
472<p> 450<p>
473When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit. 451When you're finished configuring these two files, save them and exit.
474</p>
475
476<p>
477As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
478configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
479define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
480</p> 452</p>
481 453
482<p> 454<p>
483Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration. 455Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
484Edit it to configure your keyboard. 456Edit it to configure your keyboard.
487<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps"> 459<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
488# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i> 460# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
489</pre> 461</pre>
490 462
491<p> 463<p>
492Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong 464Take special care with the <c>keymap</c> variable. If you select the wrong
493<c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard. 465<c>keymap</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
494</p> 466</p>
495 467
496<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'"> 468<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
497PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB 469PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems.
498keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to
499set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
500</note> 470</note>
501 471
502<p> 472<p>
503When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and 473When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
504exit. 474exit.
505</p> 475</p>
506 476
507<p> 477<p>
508Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it 478Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
509according to your needs. 479according to your needs.
510</p> 480</p>
511 481
512<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock"> 482<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/hwclock">
513# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i> 483# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock</i>
514</pre> 484</pre>
515 485
516<p> 486<p>
517If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> 487If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>clock="local"</c>
518to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew. 488to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
519</p> 489</p>
520 490
521<p> 491<p>
492When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path>, save and
493exit.
494</p>
495
496<p>
522You should define the timezone that you previously copied to 497You should define the timezone that you previously copied to
523<path>/etc/localtime</path> so that further upgrades of the 498<path>/etc/localtime</path> in the <path>/etc/timezone</path> file so that
524<c>sys-libs/timezone-data</c> package can update <path>/etc/localtime</path> 499further upgrades of the <c>sys-libs/timezone-data</c> package can update
525automatically. For instance, if you used the GMT timezone, you would add 500<path>/etc/localtime</path> automatically. For instance, if you used the
526<c>TIMEZONE="GMT"</c> 501Europe/Brussels timezone, you would write <c>Europe/Brussels</c> in the
527</p> 502<path>/etc/timezone</path> file.
528
529<p>
530When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and
531exit.
532</p> 503</p>
533 504
534<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')"> 505<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
535Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System 506Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
536Tools</uri>. 507Tools</uri>.

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