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2<section> 2<section>
3<title>Timezone</title> 3<title>Timezone</title>
4<body> 4<body>
5 5
6<p> 6<p>
7<path>/etc/localtime</path>. 7You now need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
8located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a
9symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>:
10</p>
11
12<pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
13# <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
14<comment>(Suppose you want to use GTM:)</comment>
15# <i>ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
8</p> 16</pre>
9 17
10</body> 18</body>
11</section> 19</section>
12<section> 20<section>
13<title>Filesystem Information</title> 21<title>Filesystem Information</title>
22<subsection>
23<title>What is fstab?</title>
24<body>
25
26<p>
27Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
28<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
29(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
30(special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not,
31etc.).
32</p>
33
14<body> 34</body>
35</subsection>
36<subsection>
37<title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
38<body>
15 39
40<p>
41<path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntaxis. Every line consists of six
42fields, seperated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
43its own meaning:
16<p> 44</p>
45
46<ul>
47<li>
48 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
49 file)
50</li>
51<li>
52 The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be
53 mounted
54</li>
55<li>
56 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
57</li>
58<li>
59 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
60 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
61 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
62 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-seperated.
63</li>
64<li>
65 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
66 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
67</li>
68<li>
69 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> the order in which filesystems should
70 be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly. The root filesystem
71 should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> (or <c>0</c> in case
72 a filesystem check isn't necessary).
73</li>
74</ul>
75
76<p>
77So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
17<path>/etc/fstab</path> 78<path>/etc/fstab</path>:
79</p>
80
81<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
82# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
83</pre>
84
18</p> 85<p>
86Lets take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
87partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
88<path>/boot</path> partition, don't copy it verbatim.
89</p>
19 90
91<p>
92In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
93<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. It shouldn't
94be mounted automatically (<c>noauto</c>) but does need to be checked. So we
95would write down:
96</p>
97
98<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
99/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto 1 2
100</pre>
101
102<p>
103Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
104option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
105aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
106</p>
107
108<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
109/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
110</pre>
111
112<p>
113If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
114<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
115</p>
116
117<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
118/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
119/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
120/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
121</pre>
122
123<p>
124To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
125(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and ofcourse, if you have other
126partitions or drives, for those too):
127</p>
128
129<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
130/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
131/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
132/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
133
134none /proc proc defaults 0 0
135none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0
136
137/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
138</pre>
139
140<p>
141<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
142removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
143<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
144</p>
145
146<p>
147Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
148SPARC-user, you should add the following line to your <path>/etc/fstab</path>
149too:
150</p>
151
152<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
153none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
154</pre>
155
156<p>
157Reread your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
158</p>
159
20</body> 160</body>
161</subsection>
21</section> 162</section>
22<section> 163<section>
23<title>Networking Information</title> 164<title>Networking Information</title>
24<body> 165<subsection>
25 166<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
26<p>
27<path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>, <c>rc-update add net.eth0</c>,
28PCMCIA-information etc.
29</p>
30
31</body> 167<body>
168
169<p>
170One of the choices the user has to make is name his PC. This seems to be quite
171easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the appropriate
172name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you choose can
173be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
174<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
175</p>
176
177<p>
178We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
179</p>
180
181<pre caption="Setting the hostname">
182# <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
183</pre>
184
185<p>
186Second we set the domainname:
187</p>
188
189<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
190# <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
191</pre>
192
193<p>
194If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
195one), you need to define that one too:
196</p>
197
198<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
199# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
200</pre>
201
202</body>
203</subsection>
204<subsection>
205<title>Configuring your Network</title>
206<body>
207
208<p>
209Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
210that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was
211just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
212your Gentoo system permanently.
213</p>
214
215<p>
216All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
217a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup
218networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
219</p>
220
221<p>
222First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
223is used in this example):
224</p>
225
226<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
227# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
228</pre>
229
230<p>
231The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following
232syntax:
233</p>
234
235<pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
236iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
237</pre>
238
239<p>
240If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c>
241to <c>dhcp</c>. However, if you need to setup your network manually and you're
242not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri
243link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network
244Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
245</p>
246
247<p>
248So lets give two examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static IP
249(192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and gateway
250192.168.0.1:
251</p>
252
253<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
254<comment>(For DHCP:)</comment>
255iface_eth0="dhcp"
256
257<comment>(For static IP:)</comment>
258iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
259gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
260</pre>
261
262<p>
263If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
264like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
265shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer.
266</p>
267
268<p>
269Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
270</p>
271
272</body>
273</subsection>
274<subsection>
275<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
276<body>
277
278<p>
279To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the
280default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
281the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
282</p>
283
284<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
285# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
286</pre>
287
288<p>
289If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
290<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
291use <c>ln</c> to do this:
292</p>
293
294<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
295# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
296# <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
297# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
298</pre>
299
300</body>
301</subsection>
302<subsection>
303<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
304<body>
305
306<p>
307You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
308<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
309for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
310internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
311<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (this system) you would
312open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
313</p>
314
315<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
316# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
317</pre>
318
319<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
320127.0.0.1 localhost tux
321192.168.0.5 jenny
322192.168.0.56 benny
323</pre>
324
325<p>
326If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
327resolution) a single line is sufficient:
328</p>
329
330<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
331127.0.0.1 localhost tux
332</pre>
333
334<p>
335Save and exit the editor to continue.
336</p>
337
338<p>
339If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
340link="#doc_chap4">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
341following topic on PCMCIA.
342</p>
343
344</body>
345</subsection>
346<subsection>
347<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
348<body>
349
350<p>
351PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package:
352</p>
353
354<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
355# <i>emerge -k pcmcia-cs</i>
356</pre>
357
358<p>
359When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>boot</e>
360runlevel:
361</p>
362
363<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
364# <i>rc-update add pcmcia boot</i>
365</pre>
366
367</body>
368</subsection>
32</section> 369</section>
33<section> 370<section>
34<title>System Information</title> 371<title>System Information</title>
35<body> 372<body>
36 373
37<p> 374<p>
38<path>/etc/rc.conf</path> 375Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
376Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
377</p>
378
379<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
380# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
381</pre>
382
383<p>
384As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
385configuration variables. When you're finished configuring
386<path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit to continue.
39</p> 387</p>
40 388
41</body> 389</body>
42</section> 390</section>
43</sections> 391</sections>

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