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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.20 2004/01/19 18:48:52 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.117 2013/01/02 19:16:07 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10
11<abstract>
12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
14proceed.
15</abstract>
16
17<version>23</version>
18<date>2013-01-03</date>
19
10<section> 20<section>
11<title>Filesystem Information</title> 21<title>Filesystem Information</title>
12<subsection> 22<subsection>
13<title>What is fstab?</title> 23<title>What is fstab?</title>
14<body> 24<body>
15 25
16<p> 26<p>
17Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in 27Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
18<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions 28<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mount points of those partitions
19(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted 29(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
20(special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not, 30and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
21etc.). 31them or not, etc.)
22</p> 32</p>
23 33
24</body> 34</body>
25</subsection> 35</subsection>
26<subsection> 36<subsection>
37<li> 47<li>
38 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device 48 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
39 file) 49 file)
40</li> 50</li>
41<li> 51<li>
42 The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be 52 The second field shows the <b>mount point</b> at which the partition should be
43 mounted 53 mounted
44</li> 54</li>
45<li> 55<li>
46 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition 56 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
47</li> 57</li>
48<li> 58<li>
49 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it 59 The fourth field shows the <b>mount options</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
50 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions, 60 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mount options,
51 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full 61 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
52 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated. 62 listing. Multiple mount options are comma-separated.
53</li> 63</li>
54<li> 64<li>
55 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 65 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
56 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 66 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
57</li> 67</li>
58<li> 68<li>
59 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which 69 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
60 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly. 70 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
61 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> 71 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
62 (or <c>0</c> in case a filesystem check isn't necessary). 72 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
63</li> 73</li>
64</ul> 74</ul>
65 75
66<p> 76<impo>
67So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 77The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
68<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 78fstab file</e>. You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
69</p> 79</impo>
70 80
71<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 81<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
72# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 82# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
73</pre> 83</pre>
74 84
85</body>
86<body test="func:keyval('/boot')">
87
75<p> 88<p>
76Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 89Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
77partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a 90partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a
78<path>/boot</path> partition, don't copy it verbatim. 91<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it.
79</p>
80
81<p> 92</p>
93
94<p>
82In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the 95In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
83<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. It shouldn't 96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
84be mounted automatically (<c>noauto</c>) but does need to be checked. So we 97filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
85would write down:
86</p> 98</p>
87 99
88<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 100<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
89/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto 1 2 101<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 0 2
90</pre> 102</pre>
91 103
92<p>
93Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
94option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
95aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
96</p> 104<p>
97 105Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
98<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 106automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
99/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 107substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
100</pre> 108manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
101
102<p> 109</p>
103If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for 110
104<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition): 111</body>
112<body>
113
105</p> 114<p>
115Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for
116your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives,
117for those too.
118</p>
106 119
107<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines"> 120<p>
108/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 121Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
122</p>
123
124<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
125<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
126/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
127/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
128
129/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
130</pre>
131
132<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
133<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 0 2
109/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 134/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
110/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 135/dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
111</pre>
112 136
113<p> 137/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
114To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
115(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
116partitions or drives, for those too):
117</p> 138</pre>
118 139
119<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example"> 140<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
120/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 141/dev/sda1 / ext3 noatime 0 1
121/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 142/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
143/dev/sda4 /usr ext3 noatime 0 2
144/dev/sda5 /var ext3 noatime 0 2
145/dev/sda6 /home ext3 noatime 0 2
146
147<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment>
148openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
149
150/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
151</pre>
152
153<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or
154func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
122/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 155/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
156/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
123 157
124none /proc proc defaults 0 0
125none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0
126
127/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 158/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
128</pre> 159</pre>
129 160
130<p> 161<p>
131<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for 162<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
132removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and 163removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
133<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD. 164<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
134</p> 165</p>
135 166
136<p> 167<p>
137Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a 168To improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
138SPARC-user, you should add the following line to your <path>/etc/fstab</path> 169mount option, which results in a faster system since access times
139too: 170aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway).
140</p>
141
142<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
143none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
144</pre>
145
146<p> 171</p>
147If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>: 172
148</p> 173<p>
149
150<pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
151none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
152</pre>
153
154<p>
155Reread your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 174Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
156</p> 175</p>
157 176
158</body> 177</body>
159</subsection> 178</subsection>
160</section> 179</section>
161<section> 180<section>
162<title>Networking Information</title> 181<title>Networking Information</title>
163<subsection> 182<subsection>
164<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title> 183<title>Host name, Domainname, etc</title>
165<body> 184<body>
166 185
167<p> 186<p>
168One of the choices the user has to make is name his PC. This seems to be quite 187One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
169easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the appropriate 188quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
170name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you choose can 189appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
171be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system 190choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
172<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>. 191<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
173</p> 192</p>
174 193
175<p>
176We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
177</p>
178
179<pre caption="Setting the hostname"> 194<pre caption="Setting the host name">
180# <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i> 195# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
181</pre>
182 196
197<comment>(Set the hostname variable to your host name)</comment>
198hostname="<i>tux</i>"
199</pre>
200
183<p> 201<p>
184Second we set the domainname: 202Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>.
203You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you
204have a DNS server but not a DHCP server. You don't need to worry about DNS or
205domainnames if your networking is setup for DHCP.
185</p> 206</p>
186 207
187<pre caption="Setting the domainname"> 208<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
188# <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i> 209# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
210
211<comment>(Set the dns_domain variable to your domain name)</comment>
212dns_domain_lo="<i>homenetwork</i>"
189</pre> 213</pre>
214
215<note>
216If you choose not to set a domainname, you can get rid of the "This is
217hostname.(none)" messages at your login screen by editing
218<path>/etc/issue</path>. Just delete the string <c>.\O</c> from that file.
219</note>
190 220
191<p> 221<p>
192If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have 222If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
193one), you need to define that one too: 223one), you need to define that one too:
194</p> 224</p>
195 225
196<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname"> 226<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
197# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i> 227# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
198</pre>
199 228
200<p> 229<comment>(Set the nis_domain variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
201Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel: 230nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
202</p> 231</pre>
203 232
204<pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel"> 233<note>
205# <i>rc-update add domainname default</i> 234For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
206</pre> 235provided in <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> which
236can be read using <c>bzless</c>. Also, you may want to emerge <c>openresolv</c>
237to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
238</note>
207 239
208</body> 240</body>
209</subsection> 241</subsection>
210<subsection> 242<subsection>
211<title>Configuring your Network</title> 243<title>Configuring your Network</title>
212<body> 244<body>
213 245
214<p> 246<p>
215Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember 247Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
216that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was 248that the networking you set up in the beginning of the Gentoo installation was
217just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for 249just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
218your Gentoo system permanently. 250your Gentoo system permanently.
219</p> 251</p>
220 252
253<note>
254More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
255bonding, bridging, 802.1Q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
256link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
257</note>
258
221<p> 259<p>
222All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 260All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
223a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup 261a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
224networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :) 262networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
225</p> 263commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
226 264<path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path>.
227<p> 265</p>
266
267<p>
268DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
269client. This is described later in <uri
270link="?part=1&amp;chap=9#networking-tools">Installing Necessary System
271Tools</uri>. Do not forget to install a DHCP client.
272</p>
273
274<p>
275If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
276specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
228First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> 277<path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> is used in
229is used in this example): 278this example):
230</p> 279</p>
231 280
232<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing"> 281<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
233# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i> 282# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
234</pre> 283</pre>
235 284
236<p> 285<p>
237The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following 286You will see the following file:
238syntax:
239</p>
240
241<pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
242iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
243</pre>
244
245<p> 287</p>
246If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 288
247to <c>dhcp</c>. However, if you need to setup your network manually and you're 289<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
248not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 290# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
249link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network 291# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
250Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already. 292# please review /usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2 and save
293# your configuration in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
294</pre>
295
251</p> 296<p>
252 297To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
298to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
253<p> 299</p>
254So let us give two examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static IP 300
255(192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and gateway 301<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
256192.168.0.1: 302config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255"
303routes_eth0="default via 192.168.0.1"
304</pre>
305
257</p> 306<p>
258 307To use DHCP, define <c>config_eth0</c>:
259<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
260<comment>(For DHCP:)</comment>
261iface_eth0="dhcp"
262
263<comment>(For static IP:)</comment>
264iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
265gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
266</pre>
267
268<p> 308</p>
269If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables, 309
270like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable 310<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
271shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer. 311config_eth0="dhcp"
312</pre>
313
314<p>
315Please read <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> for a
316list of all available options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if
317you need to set specific DHCP options.
318</p>
319
320<p>
321If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
322<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
272</p> 323</p>
273 324
274<p> 325<p>
275Now save the configuration and exit to continue. 326Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
276</p> 327</p>
280<subsection> 331<subsection>
281<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 332<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
282<body> 333<body>
283 334
284<p> 335<p>
285To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the 336To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
286default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 337default runlevel.
287the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
288</p> 338</p>
289 339
290<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 340<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
341# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
342# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth0</i>
291# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i> 343# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
292</pre> 344</pre>
293 345
294<p> 346<p>
295If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate 347If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
296<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can 348<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. just like you did with
297use <c>ln</c> to do this: 349<path>net.eth0</path>.
298</p>
299
300<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
301# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
302# <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
303# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
304</pre> 350</p>
305 351
306</body> 352</body>
307</subsection> 353</subsection>
308<subsection> 354<subsection>
309<title>Writing Down Network Information</title> 355<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
310<body> 356<body>
311 357
312<p> 358<p>
313You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in 359You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
314<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses 360<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving host names to IP addresses for
315for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your 361hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. You need to define your system.
316internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5), 362You may also want to define other systems on your network if you don't want to
317<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would 363set up your own internal DNS system.
318open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
319</p> 364</p>
320 365
321<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts"> 366<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
322# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i> 367# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
323</pre> 368</pre>
324 369
325<pre caption="Filling in the networking information"> 370<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
326127.0.0.1 localhost 371<comment>(This defines the current system)</comment>
327192.168.0.5 jenny 372127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
328192.168.0.6 benny
329192.168.0.7 tux
330</pre>
331 373
332<p> 374<comment>(Define extra systems on your network,
333If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name 375they need to have a static IP to be defined this way.)</comment>
334resolution) a single line is sufficient: 376192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
335</p> 377192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
336
337<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
338127.0.0.1 localhost tux
339</pre> 378</pre>
340 379
341<p> 380<p>
342Save and exit the editor to continue. 381Save and exit the editor to continue.
343</p> 382</p>
344 383
345<p> 384<p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
346If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri 385If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
347link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the 386link="#sysinfo">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
348following topic on PCMCIA. 387following topic on PCMCIA.
349</p> 388</p>
350 389
351</body> 390</body>
352</subsection> 391</subsection>
353<subsection> 392<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
354<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title> 393<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
355<body> 394<body>
356 395
357<p> 396<p>
358PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package: 397PCMCIA users should first install the <c>pcmciautils</c> package.
359</p> 398</p>
360 399
361<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 400<pre caption="Installing pcmciautils">
362# <i>emerge --usepkg pcmcia-cs</i> 401# <i>emerge pcmciautils</i>
363</pre>
364
365<p>
366When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
367runlevel:
368</p>
369
370<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
371# <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
372</pre> 402</pre>
373 403
374</body> 404</body>
375</subsection> 405</subsection>
376</section> 406</section>
377<section> 407
408<section id="sysinfo">
378<title>System Information</title> 409<title>System Information</title>
410<subsection>
411<title>Root Password</title>
412<body>
413
414<p>
415First we set the root password by typing:
416</p>
417
418<pre caption="Setting the root password">
419# <i>passwd</i>
420</pre>
421
379<body> 422</body>
423</subsection>
424<subsection>
425<title>System Information</title>
426<body>
380 427
381<p>
382Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
383Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
384</p> 428<p>
429Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to configure the services, startup,
430and shutdown of your system. Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all
431the comments in the file.
432</p>
385 433
386<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf"> 434<pre caption="Configuring services">
387# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 435# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
388</pre> 436</pre>
389 437
390<p> 438<p>
391As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary 439When you're finished configuring these two files, save them and exit.
392configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if 440</p>
393you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on 441
394your keyboard.
395</p> 442<p>
443Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
444Edit it to configure your keyboard.
445</p>
446
447<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
448# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
449</pre>
450
451<p>
452Take special care with the <c>keymap</c> variable. If you select the wrong
453<c>keymap</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
454</p>
455
456<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
457PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems.
458</note>
459
460<p>
461When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
462exit.
463</p>
464
465<p>
466Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
467according to your needs.
468</p>
469
470<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/hwclock">
471# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock</i>
472</pre>
473
474<p>
475If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>clock="local"</c>
476to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
477</p>
478
479<p>
480When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path>, save and
481exit.
482</p>
483
484</body>
485</subsection>
486
487<subsection>
488<title>Configure locales</title>
489<body>
490
491<p>
492You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You have to
493specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
494</p>
495
496<pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
497# <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
498</pre>
499
500<p>
501The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
502German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
503</p>
504
505<pre caption="Specify your locales">
506en_US ISO-8859-1
507en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
508de_DE ISO-8859-1
509de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
510</pre>
396 511
397<note> 512<note>
398Users of USB-based SPARC systems and SPARC clones might need to select an i386 513You can select your desired locales in the list given by running <c>locale -a</c>.
399keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
400</note> 514</note>
401 515
402<p> 516<warn>
403When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then 517We strongly suggest that you should use at least one UTF-8 locale because some
404continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>. 518applications may require it.
519</warn>
520
405</p> 521<p>
522The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generates all the locales you
523have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
524</p>
406 525
526<pre caption="Running locale-gen">
527# <i>locale-gen</i>
528</pre>
529
530<p>
531Once done, you now have the possibility to set the system-wide locale settings
532in the <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> file:
533</p>
534
535<pre caption="Setting the default system locale in /etc/env.d/02locale">
536LANG="de_DE.UTF-8"
537LC_COLLATE="C"
538</pre>
539
540<p>
541And reload your environment:
542</p>
543
544<pre caption="Reload shell environment">
545# env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile
546</pre>
547
548<p>
549We made a full <uri link="../guide-localization.xml#doc_chap3">Localization
550Guide</uri> to help you through this process. You can also read our detailed
551<uri link="../utf-8.xml#doc_chap2">UTF-8 Guide</uri> for very specific
552informations to enable UTF-8 on your system.
553</p>
554
555<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
556Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
557Tools</uri>.
558</p>
559
560</body>
561</subsection>
562<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
563<title>Configuring the Console</title>
407</body> 564<body>
565
566<p>
567If you are using a virtual console, you must uncomment the appropriate line in
568<path>/etc/inittab</path> for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
569</p>
570
571<pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab">
572hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0
573hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0
574</pre>
575
576<p>
577You should also take this time to verify that the appropriate console is
578listed in <path>/etc/securetty</path>.
579</p>
580
581<p>
582You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
583System Tools</uri>.
584</p>
585
586</body>
587</subsection>
408</section> 588</section>
409</sections> 589</sections>

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