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7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.20 2004/01/19 18:48:52 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.50 2004/11/09 13:01:52 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10
11<version>1.49</version>
12<date>October 23, 2004</date>
13
10<section> 14<section>
11<title>Filesystem Information</title> 15<title>Filesystem Information</title>
12<subsection> 16<subsection>
13<title>What is fstab?</title> 17<title>What is fstab?</title>
14<body> 18<body>
15 19
16<p> 20<p>
17Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in 21Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
18<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions 22<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
19(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted 23(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
20(special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not, 24and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
21etc.). 25them or not, etc.)
22</p> 26</p>
23 27
24</body> 28</body>
25</subsection> 29</subsection>
26<subsection> 30<subsection>
46 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition 50 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
47</li> 51</li>
48<li> 52<li>
49 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it 53 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
50 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions, 54 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
51 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full 55 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
52 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated. 56 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
53</li> 57</li>
54<li> 58<li>
55 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 59 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
56 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 60 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
57</li> 61</li>
58<li> 62<li>
59 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which 63 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
60 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly. 64 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
61 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> 65 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
62 (or <c>0</c> in case a filesystem check isn't necessary). 66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
63</li> 67</li>
64</ul> 68</ul>
65 69
66<p> 70<p>
71The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab
67So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 72file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
68<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 73<path>/etc/fstab</path>:
69</p> 74</p>
70 75
71<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 76<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
72# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 77# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
73</pre> 78</pre>
74 79
75<p> 80<p>
76Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 81Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
77partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a 82partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
78<path>/boot</path> partition, don't copy it verbatim. 83<path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim.
79</p> 84</p>
80 85
81<p> 86<p>
82In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the 87In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
83<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. It shouldn't 88<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
84be mounted automatically (<c>noauto</c>) but does need to be checked. So we 89It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
85would write down:
86</p> 90</p>
87 91
88<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 92<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
89/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto 1 2 93/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
94</pre>
95
96<p>
97Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
98automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
99substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
100manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
90</pre> 101</p>
91 102
92<p> 103<p>
93Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c> 104Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
94option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times 105option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
95aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway): 106aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
96</p> 107</p>
97 108
98<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 109<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
99/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 110/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
100</pre> 111</pre>
101 112
102<p> 113<p>
103If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for 114If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
104<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition): 115<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
105</p> 116</p>
106 117
107<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines"> 118<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
108/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 119/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
109/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 120/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
110/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 121/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
111</pre> 122</pre>
112 123
113<p> 124<p>
115(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other 126(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
116partitions or drives, for those too): 127partitions or drives, for those too):
117</p> 128</p>
118 129
119<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example"> 130<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
120/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 131/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
121/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 132/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
122/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 133/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
123 134
124none /proc proc defaults 0 0 135none /proc proc defaults 0 0
125none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0 136none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
126 137
127/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 138/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
128</pre> 139</pre>
129 140
130<p> 141<p>
133<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD. 144<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
134</p> 145</p>
135 146
136<p> 147<p>
137Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a 148Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
138SPARC-user, you should add the following line to your <path>/etc/fstab</path> 149<b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your
150<path>/etc/fstab</path>
139too: 151too:
140</p> 152</p>
141 153
142<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab"> 154<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
143none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0 155none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
150<pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab"> 162<pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
151none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0 163none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
152</pre> 164</pre>
153 165
154<p> 166<p>
155Reread your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 167Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
156</p> 168</p>
157 169
158</body> 170</body>
159</subsection> 171</subsection>
160</section> 172</section>
163<subsection> 175<subsection>
164<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title> 176<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
165<body> 177<body>
166 178
167<p> 179<p>
168One of the choices the user has to make is name his PC. This seems to be quite 180One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
169easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the appropriate 181quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
170name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you choose can 182appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
171be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system 183choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
172<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>. 184<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
173</p> 185</p>
174 186
175<p> 187<p>
176We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname: 188We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
218your Gentoo system permanently. 230your Gentoo system permanently.
219</p> 231</p>
220 232
221<p> 233<p>
222All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 234All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
223a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup 235a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
224networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :) 236networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
225</p> 237</p>
226 238
227<p> 239<p>
228First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> 240First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
242iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>" 254iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
243</pre> 255</pre>
244 256
245<p> 257<p>
246If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 258If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c>
259to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>.
247to <c>dhcp</c>. However, if you need to setup your network manually and you're 260If you need to set up your network manually and you're
248not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 261not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri
249link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network 262link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#network_term">Understanding Network
250Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already. 263Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
251</p> 264</p>
252 265
253<p> 266<p>
254So let us give two examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static IP 267So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static
255(192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and gateway 268IP (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and
256192.168.0.1: 269gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for
270rp-pppoe usage:
257</p> 271</p>
258 272
259<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net"> 273<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
260<comment>(For DHCP:)</comment> 274<comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
261iface_eth0="dhcp" 275iface_eth0="dhcp"
276<comment># Some network admins require that you use the</comment>
277<comment># hostname and domainname provided by the DHCP server.</comment>
278<comment># In that case, add the following to let dhcpcd use them.</comment>
279<comment># That will override your own hostname and domainname definitions.</comment>
280dhcpcd_eth0="-HD"
281<comment># If you intend on using NTP to keep your machine clock synchronized, use</comment>
282<comment># the -N option to prevent dhcpcd from overwriting your /etc/ntp.conf file</comment>
283dhcpcd_eth0="-N"
262 284
263<comment>(For static IP:)</comment> 285<comment>(For static IP)</comment>
264iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0" 286iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
265gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1" 287gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
288
289<comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
290iface_eth0="up"
266</pre> 291</pre>
267 292
268<p> 293<p>
269If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables, 294If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
270like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable 295like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
280<subsection> 305<subsection>
281<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 306<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
282<body> 307<body>
283 308
284<p> 309<p>
285To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the 310To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
286default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 311default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
287the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script. 312the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
288</p> 313</p>
289 314
290<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 315<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
322# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i> 347# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
323</pre> 348</pre>
324 349
325<pre caption="Filling in the networking information"> 350<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
326127.0.0.1 localhost 351127.0.0.1 localhost
327192.168.0.5 jenny 352192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
328192.168.0.6 benny 353192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
329192.168.0.7 tux 354192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
330</pre> 355</pre>
331 356
332<p> 357<p>
333If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name 358If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
334resolution) a single line is sufficient: 359resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
360system <c>tux.homenetwork</c>:
335</p> 361</p>
336 362
337<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs"> 363<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
338127.0.0.1 localhost tux 364127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
339</pre> 365</pre>
340 366
341<p> 367<p>
342Save and exit the editor to continue. 368Save and exit the editor to continue.
343</p> 369</p>
352</subsection> 378</subsection>
353<subsection> 379<subsection>
354<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title> 380<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
355<body> 381<body>
356 382
383<note>
384pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
385</note>
386
357<p> 387<p>
358PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package: 388PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
389includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
390using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
391to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
359</p> 392</p>
360 393
361<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 394<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
362# <i>emerge --usepkg pcmcia-cs</i> 395# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
363</pre> 396</pre>
364 397
365<p> 398<p>
366When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e> 399When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
367runlevel: 400runlevel:
373 406
374</body> 407</body>
375</subsection> 408</subsection>
376</section> 409</section>
377<section> 410<section>
411<title>System Information</title>
412<subsection>
413<title>Root Password</title>
414<body>
415
416<p>
417First we set the root password by typing:
418</p>
419
420<pre caption="Setting the root password">
421# <i>passwd</i>
422</pre>
423
424<p>
425If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
426<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
427</p>
428
429<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
430# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
431</pre>
432
433</body>
434</subsection>
435<subsection>
378<title>System Information</title> 436<title>System Information</title>
379<body> 437<body>
380 438
381<p> 439<p>
382Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 440Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
393you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on 451you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on
394your keyboard. 452your keyboard.
395</p> 453</p>
396 454
397<note> 455<note>
398Users of USB-based SPARC systems and SPARC clones might need to select an i386 456Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
399keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap". 457select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
400</note> 458</note>
401 459
402<p> 460<p>
461<b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use
462ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have
463to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
464</p>
465
466<p>
403When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then 467When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then
404continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>. 468continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
469Tools</uri>.
405</p> 470</p>
406 471
407</body> 472</body>
473</subsection>
408</section> 474</section>
409</sections> 475</sections>

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