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7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.23 2004/02/08 09:54:39 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.57 2005/04/07 16:12:35 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10
11<version>2.1</version>
12<date>2005-04-07</date>
13
10<section> 14<section>
11<title>Filesystem Information</title> 15<title>Filesystem Information</title>
12<subsection> 16<subsection>
13<title>What is fstab?</title> 17<title>What is fstab?</title>
14<body> 18<body>
15 19
16<p> 20<p>
17Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in 21Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
18<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions 22<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
19(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted 23(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
20(special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not, 24and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
21etc.). 25them or not, etc.)
22</p> 26</p>
23 27
24</body> 28</body>
25</subsection> 29</subsection>
26<subsection> 30<subsection>
46 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition 50 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
47</li> 51</li>
48<li> 52<li>
49 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it 53 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
50 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions, 54 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
51 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full 55 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
52 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated. 56 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
53</li> 57</li>
54<li> 58<li>
55 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 59 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
56 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 60 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
57</li> 61</li>
58<li> 62<li>
59 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which 63 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
60 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly. 64 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
61 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> 65 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
62 (or <c>0</c> in case a filesystem check isn't necessary). 66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
63</li> 67</li>
64</ul> 68</ul>
65 69
66<p> 70<p>
71The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab
67So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 72file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
68<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 73<path>/etc/fstab</path>:
69</p> 74</p>
70 75
71<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 76<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
72# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 77# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
73</pre> 78</pre>
74 79
75<p> 80<p>
76Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 81Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
77partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a 82partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
78<path>/boot</path> partition, don't copy it verbatim. 83<path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim.
79</p> 84</p>
80 85
81<p> 86<p>
82In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the 87In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
83<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. It shouldn't 88<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
84be mounted automatically (<c>noauto</c>) but does need to be checked. So we 89It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
85would write down:
86</p> 90</p>
87 91
88<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 92<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
89/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto 1 2 93/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
94</pre>
95
96<p>
97Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
98automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
99substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
100manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
90</pre> 101</p>
91 102
92<p> 103<p>
93Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c> 104Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
94option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times 105option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
95aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway): 106aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
96</p> 107</p>
97 108
98<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 109<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
99/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 110/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
100</pre> 111</pre>
101 112
102<p> 113<p>
103If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for 114If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
104<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition): 115<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
105</p> 116</p>
106 117
107<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines"> 118<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
108/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 119/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
109/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 120/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
110/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 121/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
111</pre> 122</pre>
112 123
113<p> 124<p>
115(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other 126(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
116partitions or drives, for those too): 127partitions or drives, for those too):
117</p> 128</p>
118 129
119<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example"> 130<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
120/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 131/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
121/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 132/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
122/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 133/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
123 134
124none /proc proc defaults 0 0 135none /proc proc defaults 0 0
125none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0 136none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
126 137
127/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 138/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
128</pre> 139</pre>
129 140
130<p> 141<p>
133<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD. 144<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
134</p> 145</p>
135 146
136<p> 147<p>
137Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a 148Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
138SPARC-user, you should add the following line to your <path>/etc/fstab</path> 149<b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your
150<path>/etc/fstab</path>
139too: 151too:
140</p> 152</p>
141 153
142<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab"> 154<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
143none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0 155none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
144</pre> 156</pre>
145 157
146<p> 158<p>
147If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
148</p>
149
150<pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
151none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
152</pre>
153
154<p>
155Reread your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 159Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
156</p> 160</p>
157 161
158</body> 162</body>
159</subsection> 163</subsection>
160</section> 164</section>
163<subsection> 167<subsection>
164<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title> 168<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
165<body> 169<body>
166 170
167<p> 171<p>
168One of the choices the user has to make is name his PC. This seems to be quite 172One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
169easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the appropriate 173quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
170name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you choose can 174appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
171be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system 175choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
172<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>. 176<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
173</p> 177</p>
174 178
175<p> 179<p>
176We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname: 180We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
218your Gentoo system permanently. 222your Gentoo system permanently.
219</p> 223</p>
220 224
221<p> 225<p>
222All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 226All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
223a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup 227a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
224networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :) 228networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
225</p> 229</p>
226 230
227<p> 231<p>
228First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> 232First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
243</pre> 247</pre>
244 248
245<p> 249<p>
246If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 250If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c>
247to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>. 251to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>.
248If you need to setup your network manually and you're 252If you need to set up your network manually and you're
249not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 253not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri
250link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network 254link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#network_term">Understanding Network
251Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already. 255Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
252</p> 256</p>
253 257
254<p> 258<p>
255So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static 259So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static
257gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for 261gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for
258rp-pppoe usage: 262rp-pppoe usage:
259</p> 263</p>
260 264
261<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net"> 265<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
262<comment>(For DHCP:)</comment> 266<comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
263iface_eth0="dhcp" 267iface_eth0="dhcp"
268<comment># Some network admins require that you use the</comment>
269<comment># hostname and domainname provided by the DHCP server.</comment>
270<comment># In that case, add the following to let dhcpcd use them.</comment>
271<comment># That will override your own hostname and domainname definitions.</comment>
272dhcpcd_eth0="-HD"
273<comment># If you intend on using NTP to keep your machine clock synchronized, use</comment>
274<comment># the -N option to prevent dhcpcd from overwriting your /etc/ntp.conf file</comment>
275dhcpcd_eth0="-N"
264 276
265<comment>(For static IP:)</comment> 277<comment>(For static IP)</comment>
266iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0" 278iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
267gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1" 279gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
268 280
269<comment>(For rp-pppoe:)</comment> 281<comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
270iface_eth0="up" 282iface_eth0="up"
271</pre> 283</pre>
272 284
273<p> 285<p>
274If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables, 286If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
285<subsection> 297<subsection>
286<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 298<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
287<body> 299<body>
288 300
289<p> 301<p>
290To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the 302To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
291default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 303default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
292the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script. 304the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
293</p> 305</p>
294 306
295<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 307<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
334192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux 346192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
335</pre> 347</pre>
336 348
337<p> 349<p>
338If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name 350If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
339resolution) a single line is sufficient: 351resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
352system <c>tux</c>:
340</p> 353</p>
341 354
342<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs"> 355<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
343127.0.0.1 localhost tux 356127.0.0.1 localhost tux
344</pre> 357</pre>
345 358
346<p> 359<p>
347Save and exit the editor to continue. 360Save and exit the editor to continue.
348</p> 361</p>
357</subsection> 370</subsection>
358<subsection> 371<subsection>
359<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title> 372<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
360<body> 373<body>
361 374
375<note>
376pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
377</note>
378
362<p> 379<p>
363PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package: 380PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
381includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
382using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
383to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
364</p> 384</p>
365 385
366<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 386<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
367# <i>emerge --usepkg pcmcia-cs</i> 387# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
368</pre> 388</pre>
369 389
370<p> 390<p>
371When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e> 391When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
372runlevel: 392runlevel:
378 398
379</body> 399</body>
380</subsection> 400</subsection>
381</section> 401</section>
382<section> 402<section>
403<title>System Information</title>
404<subsection>
405<title>Root Password</title>
406<body>
407
408<p>
409First we set the root password by typing:
410</p>
411
412<pre caption="Setting the root password">
413# <i>passwd</i>
414</pre>
415
416<p>
417If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
418<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
419</p>
420
421<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
422# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
423</pre>
424
425</body>
426</subsection>
427<subsection>
383<title>System Information</title> 428<title>System Information</title>
384<body> 429<body>
385 430
386<p> 431<p>
387Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 432Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
398you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on 443you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on
399your keyboard. 444your keyboard.
400</p> 445</p>
401 446
402<note> 447<note>
403Users of USB-based SPARC systems and SPARC clones might need to select an i386 448Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
404keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap". 449select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
405</note> 450</note>
406 451
407<p> 452<p>
453<b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use
454ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have
455to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
456</p>
457
458<p>
408When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then 459When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then
409continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>. 460continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
461Tools</uri>.
410</p> 462</p>
411 463
412</body> 464</body>
465</subsection>
413</section> 466</section>
414</sections> 467</sections>

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