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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.30 2004/03/21 10:21:35 swift Exp $ -->
8
1<sections> 9<sections>
2<section> 10<section>
3<title>Timezone</title>
4<body>
5
6<p>
7<path>/etc/localtime</path>.
8</p>
9
10</body>
11</section>
12<section>
13<title>Filesystem Information</title> 11<title>Filesystem Information</title>
12<subsection>
13<title>What is fstab?</title>
14<body>
15
16<p>
17Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
18<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
19(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
20(special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not,
21etc.).
22</p>
23
14<body> 24</body>
25</subsection>
26<subsection>
27<title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
28<body>
15 29
30<p>
31<path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
32fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
33its own meaning:
16<p> 34</p>
35
36<ul>
37<li>
38 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
39 file)
40</li>
41<li>
42 The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be
43 mounted
44</li>
45<li>
46 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
47</li>
48<li>
49 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
50 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
51 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
52 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
53</li>
54<li>
55 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
56 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
57</li>
58<li>
59 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
60 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
61 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
62 (or <c>0</c> in case a filesystem check isn't necessary).
63</li>
64</ul>
65
66<p>
67So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
17<path>/etc/fstab</path> 68<path>/etc/fstab</path>:
69</p>
70
71<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
72# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
73</pre>
74
18</p> 75<p>
76Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
77partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
78<path>/boot</path> partition (such as PPC), don't copy it verbatim.
79</p>
19 80
81<p>
82In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
83<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. It shouldn't
84be mounted automatically (<c>noauto</c>) but does need to be checked. So we
85would write down:
86</p>
87
88<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
89/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto 1 2
90</pre>
91
92<p>
93Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
94option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
95aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
96</p>
97
98<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
99/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
100</pre>
101
102<p>
103If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
104<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
105</p>
106
107<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
108/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
109/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
110/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
111</pre>
112
113<p>
114To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
115(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
116partitions or drives, for those too):
117</p>
118
119<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
120/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
121/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
122/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
123
124none /proc proc defaults 0 0
125none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0
126
127/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
128</pre>
129
130<p>
131<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
132removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
133<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
134</p>
135
136<p>
137Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
138SPARC-user, you should add the following line to your <path>/etc/fstab</path>
139too:
140</p>
141
142<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
143none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
144</pre>
145
146<p>
147If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
148</p>
149
150<pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
151none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
152</pre>
153
154<p>
155Reread your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
156</p>
157
20</body> 158</body>
159</subsection>
21</section> 160</section>
22<section> 161<section>
23<title>Networking Information</title> 162<title>Networking Information</title>
24<body> 163<subsection>
25 164<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
26<p>
27<path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>, <c>rc-update add net.eth0</c>,
28PCMCIA-information etc.
29</p>
30
31</body> 165<body>
166
167<p>
168One of the choices the user has to make is name his PC. This seems to be quite
169easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the appropriate
170name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you choose can
171be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
172<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
173</p>
174
175<p>
176We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
177</p>
178
179<pre caption="Setting the hostname">
180# <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
181</pre>
182
183<p>
184Second we set the domainname:
185</p>
186
187<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
188# <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
189</pre>
190
191<p>
192If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
193one), you need to define that one too:
194</p>
195
196<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
197# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
198</pre>
199
200<p>
201Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
202</p>
203
204<pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel">
205# <i>rc-update add domainname default</i>
206</pre>
207
208</body>
209</subsection>
210<subsection>
211<title>Configuring your Network</title>
212<body>
213
214<p>
215Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
216that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was
217just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
218your Gentoo system permanently.
219</p>
220
221<p>
222All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
223a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup
224networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
225</p>
226
227<p>
228First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
229is used in this example):
230</p>
231
232<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
233# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
234</pre>
235
236<p>
237The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following
238syntax:
239</p>
240
241<pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
242iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
243</pre>
244
245<p>
246If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c>
247to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>.
248If you need to setup your network manually and you're
249not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri
250link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network
251Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
252</p>
253
254<p>
255So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static
256IP (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and
257gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for
258rp-pppoe usage:
259</p>
260
261<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
262<comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
263iface_eth0="dhcp"
264
265<comment>(For static IP)</comment>
266iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
267gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
268
269<comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
270iface_eth0="up"
271</pre>
272
273<p>
274If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
275like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
276shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer.
277</p>
278
279<p>
280Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
281</p>
282
283</body>
284</subsection>
285<subsection>
286<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
287<body>
288
289<p>
290To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the
291default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
292the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
293</p>
294
295<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
296# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
297</pre>
298
299<p>
300If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
301<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
302use <c>ln</c> to do this:
303</p>
304
305<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
306# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
307# <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
308# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
309</pre>
310
311</body>
312</subsection>
313<subsection>
314<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
315<body>
316
317<p>
318You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
319<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
320for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
321internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
322<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would
323open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
324</p>
325
326<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
327# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
328</pre>
329
330<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
331127.0.0.1 localhost
332192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
333192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
334192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
335</pre>
336
337<p>
338If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
339resolution) a single line is sufficient:
340</p>
341
342<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
343127.0.0.1 localhost
344</pre>
345
346<p>
347Save and exit the editor to continue.
348</p>
349
350<p>
351If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
352link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
353following topic on PCMCIA.
354</p>
355
356</body>
357</subsection>
358<subsection>
359<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
360<body>
361
362<p>
363PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. The
364<c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary to avoid installing XFree86 at this moment:
365</p>
366
367<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
368# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
369</pre>
370
371<p>
372When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
373runlevel:
374</p>
375
376<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
377# <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
378</pre>
379
380</body>
381</subsection>
32</section> 382</section>
33<section> 383<section>
34<title>System Information</title> 384<title>System Information</title>
35<body> 385<body>
36 386
37<p> 387<p>
38<path>/etc/rc.conf</path> 388Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
389Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
390</p>
391
392<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
393# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
394</pre>
395
396<p>
397As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
398configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if
399you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on
400your keyboard.
401</p>
402
403<note>
404Users of USB-based SPARC systems and SPARC clones might need to select an i386
405keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
406</note>
407
408<p>
409PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB
410keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to
411set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
412</p>
413
414<p>
415When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then
416continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>.
39</p> 417</p>
40 418
41</body> 419</body>
42</section> 420</section>
43</sections> 421</sections>

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