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3 3
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7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.30 2004/03/21 10:21:35 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.48 2004/10/23 11:02:06 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10<section> 10<section>
11<title>Filesystem Information</title> 11<title>Filesystem Information</title>
12<subsection> 12<subsection>
15 15
16<p> 16<p>
17Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in 17Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
18<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions 18<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
19(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted 19(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
20(special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not, 20and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
21etc.). 21them or not, etc.)
22</p> 22</p>
23 23
24</body> 24</body>
25</subsection> 25</subsection>
26<subsection> 26<subsection>
57</li> 57</li>
58<li> 58<li>
59 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which 59 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
60 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly. 60 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
61 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> 61 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
62 (or <c>0</c> in case a filesystem check isn't necessary). 62 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
63</li> 63</li>
64</ul> 64</ul>
65 65
66<p> 66<p>
67The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab
67So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 68file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
68<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 69<path>/etc/fstab</path>:
69</p> 70</p>
70 71
71<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 72<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
72# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 73# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
73</pre> 74</pre>
74 75
75<p> 76<p>
76Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 77Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
77partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a 78partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
78<path>/boot</path> partition (such as PPC), don't copy it verbatim. 79<path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim.
79</p> 80</p>
80 81
81<p> 82<p>
82In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the 83In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
83<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. It shouldn't 84<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
84be mounted automatically (<c>noauto</c>) but does need to be checked. So we 85It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
85would write down:
86</p> 86</p>
87 87
88<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 88<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
89/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto 1 2 89/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
90</pre>
91
92<p>
93Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
94automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
95substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
96manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
90</pre> 97</p>
91 98
92<p> 99<p>
93Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c> 100Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
94option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times 101option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
95aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway): 102aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
96</p> 103</p>
97 104
98<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 105<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
99/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 106/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
100</pre> 107</pre>
101 108
102<p> 109<p>
103If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for 110If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
104<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition): 111<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
105</p> 112</p>
106 113
107<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines"> 114<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
108/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 115/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
109/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 116/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
110/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 117/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
111</pre> 118</pre>
112 119
113<p> 120<p>
115(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other 122(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
116partitions or drives, for those too): 123partitions or drives, for those too):
117</p> 124</p>
118 125
119<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example"> 126<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
120/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 127/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
121/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 128/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
122/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 129/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
123 130
124none /proc proc defaults 0 0 131none /proc proc defaults 0 0
125none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0 132none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
126 133
127/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 134/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
128</pre> 135</pre>
129 136
130<p> 137<p>
133<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD. 140<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
134</p> 141</p>
135 142
136<p> 143<p>
137Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a 144Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
138SPARC-user, you should add the following line to your <path>/etc/fstab</path> 145<b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your
146<path>/etc/fstab</path>
139too: 147too:
140</p> 148</p>
141 149
142<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab"> 150<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
143none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0 151none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
150<pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab"> 158<pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
151none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0 159none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
152</pre> 160</pre>
153 161
154<p> 162<p>
155Reread your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 163Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
156</p> 164</p>
157 165
158</body> 166</body>
159</subsection> 167</subsection>
160</section> 168</section>
163<subsection> 171<subsection>
164<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title> 172<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
165<body> 173<body>
166 174
167<p> 175<p>
168One of the choices the user has to make is name his PC. This seems to be quite 176One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
169easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the appropriate 177quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
170name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you choose can 178appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
171be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system 179choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
172<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>. 180<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
173</p> 181</p>
174 182
175<p> 183<p>
176We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname: 184We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
218your Gentoo system permanently. 226your Gentoo system permanently.
219</p> 227</p>
220 228
221<p> 229<p>
222All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 230All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
223a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup 231a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
224networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :) 232networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
225</p> 233</p>
226 234
227<p> 235<p>
228First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> 236First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
243</pre> 251</pre>
244 252
245<p> 253<p>
246If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 254If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c>
247to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>. 255to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>.
248If you need to setup your network manually and you're 256If you need to set up your network manually and you're
249not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 257not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri
250link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network 258link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#network_term">Understanding Network
251Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already. 259Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
252</p> 260</p>
253 261
254<p> 262<p>
255So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static 263So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static
259</p> 267</p>
260 268
261<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net"> 269<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
262<comment>(For DHCP)</comment> 270<comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
263iface_eth0="dhcp" 271iface_eth0="dhcp"
272<comment># Some network admins require that you use the</comment>
273<comment># hostname and domainname provided by the DHCP server.</comment>
274<comment># In that case, add the following to let dhcpcd use them.</comment>
275<comment># That will override your own hostname and domainname definitions.</comment>
276dhcpcd_eth0="-HD"
277<comment># If you intend on using NTP to keep your machine clock synchronized, use</comment>
278<comment># the -N option to prevent dhcpcd from overwriting your /etc/ntp.conf file</comment>
279dhcpcd_eth0="-N"
264 280
265<comment>(For static IP)</comment> 281<comment>(For static IP)</comment>
266iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0" 282iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
267gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1" 283gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
268 284
285<subsection> 301<subsection>
286<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 302<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
287<body> 303<body>
288 304
289<p> 305<p>
290To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the 306To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
291default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 307default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
292the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script. 308the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
293</p> 309</p>
294 310
295<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 311<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
334192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux 350192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
335</pre> 351</pre>
336 352
337<p> 353<p>
338If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name 354If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
339resolution) a single line is sufficient: 355resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
356system <c>tux.homenetwork</c>:
340</p> 357</p>
341 358
342<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs"> 359<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
343127.0.0.1 localhost 360127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
344</pre> 361</pre>
345 362
346<p> 363<p>
347Save and exit the editor to continue. 364Save and exit the editor to continue.
348</p> 365</p>
357</subsection> 374</subsection>
358<subsection> 375<subsection>
359<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title> 376<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
360<body> 377<body>
361 378
379<note>
380pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
381</note>
382
362<p> 383<p>
363PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. The 384PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
364<c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary to avoid installing XFree86 at this moment: 385includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
386using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
387to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
365</p> 388</p>
366 389
367<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 390<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
368# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i> 391# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
369</pre> 392</pre>
379 402
380</body> 403</body>
381</subsection> 404</subsection>
382</section> 405</section>
383<section> 406<section>
407<title>System Information</title>
408<subsection>
409<title>Root Password</title>
410<body>
411
412<p>
413First we set the root password by typing:
414</p>
415
416<pre caption="Setting the root password">
417# <i>passwd</i>
418</pre>
419
420<p>
421If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
422<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
423</p>
424
425<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
426# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
427</pre>
428
429</body>
430</subsection>
431<subsection>
384<title>System Information</title> 432<title>System Information</title>
385<body> 433<body>
386 434
387<p> 435<p>
388Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 436Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
399you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on 447you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on
400your keyboard. 448your keyboard.
401</p> 449</p>
402 450
403<note> 451<note>
404Users of USB-based SPARC systems and SPARC clones might need to select an i386 452Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
405keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap". 453select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
406</note> 454</note>
407 455
408<p> 456<p>
409PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB 457<b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use
410keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to 458ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have
411set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>. 459to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
412</p> 460</p>
413 461
414<p> 462<p>
415When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then 463When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then
416continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>. 464continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
465Tools</uri>.
417</p> 466</p>
418 467
419</body> 468</body>
469</subsection>
420</section> 470</section>
421</sections> 471</sections>

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