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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.36 2004/07/09 11:24:20 neysx Exp $ -->
8
9<sections>
1<section> 10<section>
2<subsection>
3<title>Timezone</title>
4<body>
5
6<p>
7<path>/etc/localtime</path>.
8</p>
9
10</body>
11</subsection>
12<subsection>
13<title>Filesystem Information</title> 11<title>Filesystem Information</title>
12<subsection>
13<title>What is fstab?</title>
14<body>
15
16<p>
17Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
18<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
19(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
20(special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not,
21etc.).
22</p>
23
14<body> 24</body>
25</subsection>
26<subsection>
27<title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
28<body>
15 29
30<p>
31<path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
32fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
33its own meaning:
16<p> 34</p>
35
36<ul>
37<li>
38 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
39 file)
40</li>
41<li>
42 The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be
43 mounted
44</li>
45<li>
46 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
47</li>
48<li>
49 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
50 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
51 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
52 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
53</li>
54<li>
55 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
56 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
57</li>
58<li>
59 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
60 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
61 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
62 (or <c>0</c> in case a filesystem check isn't necessary).
63</li>
64</ul>
65
66<p>
67So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
68<path>/etc/fstab</path>:
69</p>
70
71<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
72# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
73</pre>
74
75<p>
76Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
77partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
78<path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim.
79</p>
80
81<p>
82In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
83<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
84It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
85</p>
86
87<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
88/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
89</pre>
90
91<p>
92Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
93automatically. Those people should substitute <c>defaults</c> with
94<c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to manually mount this partition
95every time you want to use it.
96</p>
97
98<p>
99Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
100option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
101aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
102</p>
103
104<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
105/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
106</pre>
107
108<p>
109If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
110<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
111</p>
112
113<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
114/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
115/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
116/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
117</pre>
118
119<p>
120To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
121(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
122partitions or drives, for those too):
123</p>
124
125<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
126/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
127/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
128/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
129
130none /proc proc defaults 0 0
131none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0
132
133/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
134</pre>
135
136<p>
137<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
138removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
139<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
140</p>
141
142<p>
143Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
144<b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your
17<path>/etc/fstab</path> 145<path>/etc/fstab</path>
146too:
147</p>
148
149<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
150none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
151</pre>
152
18</p> 153<p>
154If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
155</p>
19 156
157<pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
158none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
159</pre>
160
161<p>
162Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
163</p>
164
20</body> 165</body>
21</subsection>
22<subsection> 166</subsection>
167</section>
168<section>
23<title>Networking Information</title> 169<title>Networking Information</title>
24<body>
25
26<p>
27<path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>, <c>rc-update add net.eth0</c>,
28PCMCIA-information etc.
29</p>
30
31</body>
32</subsection> 170<subsection>
171<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
172<body>
173
174<p>
175One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
176quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
177appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
178choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
179<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
180</p>
181
182<p>
183We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
184</p>
185
186<pre caption="Setting the hostname">
187# <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
188</pre>
189
190<p>
191Second we set the domainname:
192</p>
193
194<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
195# <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
196</pre>
197
198<p>
199If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
200one), you need to define that one too:
201</p>
202
203<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
204# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
205</pre>
206
207<p>
208Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
209</p>
210
211<pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel">
212# <i>rc-update add domainname default</i>
213</pre>
214
215</body>
33<subsection> 216</subsection>
217<subsection>
218<title>Configuring your Network</title>
219<body>
220
221<p>
222Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
223that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was
224just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
225your Gentoo system permanently.
226</p>
227
228<p>
229All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
230a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup
231networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
232</p>
233
234<p>
235First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
236is used in this example):
237</p>
238
239<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
240# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
241</pre>
242
243<p>
244The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following
245syntax:
246</p>
247
248<pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
249iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
250</pre>
251
252<p>
253If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c>
254to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>.
255If you need to setup your network manually and you're
256not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri
257link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network
258Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
259</p>
260
261<p>
262So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static
263IP (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and
264gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for
265rp-pppoe usage:
266</p>
267
268<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
269<comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
270iface_eth0="dhcp"
271<comment>Some network admins require that you use the</comment>
272<comment>hostname and domainname provided by the DHCP server.</comment>
273<comment>In that case, add the following to let dhcpcd use them.</comment>
274<comment>That will override your own hostname and domainname definitions.</comment>
275dhcpcd_eth0="-HD"
276<comment>If you intend on using NTP to keep your machine clock synchronized, use</comment>
277<comment>the -N option to prevent dhcpcd from overwriting your /etc/ntp.conf file</comment>
278dhcpcd_eth0="-N"
279
280<comment>(For static IP)</comment>
281iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
282gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
283
284<comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
285iface_eth0="up"
286</pre>
287
288<p>
289If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
290like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
291shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer.
292</p>
293
294<p>
295Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
296</p>
297
298</body>
299</subsection>
300<subsection>
301<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
302<body>
303
304<p>
305To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the
306default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
307the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
308</p>
309
310<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
311# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
312</pre>
313
314<p>
315If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
316<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
317use <c>ln</c> to do this:
318</p>
319
320<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
321# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
322# <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
323# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
324</pre>
325
326</body>
327</subsection>
328<subsection>
329<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
330<body>
331
332<p>
333You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
334<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
335for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
336internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
337<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would
338open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
339</p>
340
341<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
342# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
343</pre>
344
345<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
346127.0.0.1 localhost
347192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
348192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
349192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
350</pre>
351
352<p>
353If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
354resolution) a single line is sufficient:
355</p>
356
357<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
358127.0.0.1 localhost
359</pre>
360
361<p>
362Save and exit the editor to continue.
363</p>
364
365<p>
366If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
367link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
368following topic on PCMCIA.
369</p>
370
371</body>
372</subsection>
373<subsection>
374<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
375<body>
376
377<note>
378pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
379</note>
380
381<p>
382PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. The
383<c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary to avoid installing XFree86 at this moment:
384</p>
385
386<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
387# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
388</pre>
389
390<p>
391When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
392runlevel:
393</p>
394
395<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
396# <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
397</pre>
398
399</body>
400</subsection>
401</section>
402<section>
34<title>System Information</title> 403<title>System Information</title>
35<body> 404<body>
36 405
37<p> 406<p>
38<path>/etc/rc.conf</path> 407Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
408Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
409</p>
410
411<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
412# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
413</pre>
414
39</p> 415<p>
416As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
417configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if
418you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on
419your keyboard.
420</p>
40 421
422<note>
423Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
424select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
425</note>
426
427<p>
428<b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use
429ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have
430to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
431</p>
432
433<p>
434When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then
435continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>.
436</p>
437
41</body> 438</body>
42</subsection>
43</section> 439</section>
440</sections>

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