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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
1<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
2<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
3 6
4<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.11 2003/11/24 05:23:11 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.36 2004/07/09 11:24:20 neysx Exp $ -->
5 8
6<sections> 9<sections>
7<section>
8<title>Timezone</title>
9<body>
10
11<p>
12You now need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
13located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a
14symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>:
15</p>
16
17<pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
18# <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
19<comment>(Suppose you want to use GMT:)</comment>
20# <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
21</pre>
22
23</body>
24</section>
25<section> 10<section>
26<title>Filesystem Information</title> 11<title>Filesystem Information</title>
27<subsection> 12<subsection>
28<title>What is fstab?</title> 13<title>What is fstab?</title>
29<body> 14<body>
41<subsection> 26<subsection>
42<title>Creating /etc/fstab</title> 27<title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
43<body> 28<body>
44 29
45<p> 30<p>
46<path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntaxis. Every line consists of six 31<path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
47fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has 32fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
48its own meaning: 33its own meaning:
49</p> 34</p>
50 35
51<ul> 36<ul>
69<li> 54<li>
70 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 55 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
71 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 56 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
72</li> 57</li>
73<li> 58<li>
74 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> the order in which filesystems should 59 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
75 be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly. The root filesystem 60 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
76 should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> (or <c>0</c> in case 61 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
77 a filesystem check isn't necessary). 62 (or <c>0</c> in case a filesystem check isn't necessary).
78</li> 63</li>
79</ul> 64</ul>
80 65
81<p> 66<p>
82So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 67So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
86<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 71<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
87# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 72# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
88</pre> 73</pre>
89 74
90<p> 75<p>
91Lets take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 76Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
92partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a 77partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
93<path>/boot</path> partition, don't copy it verbatim. 78<path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim.
94</p> 79</p>
95 80
96<p> 81<p>
97In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the 82In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
98<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. It shouldn't 83<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
99be mounted automatically (<c>noauto</c>) but does need to be checked. So we 84It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
100would write down:
101</p> 85</p>
102 86
103<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 87<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
104/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto 1 2 88/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
89</pre>
90
91<p>
92Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
93automatically. Those people should substitute <c>defaults</c> with
94<c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to manually mount this partition
95every time you want to use it.
105</pre> 96</p>
106 97
107<p> 98<p>
108Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c> 99Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
109option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times 100option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
110aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway): 101aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
148<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD. 139<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
149</p> 140</p>
150 141
151<p> 142<p>
152Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a 143Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
153SPARC-user, you should add the following line to your <path>/etc/fstab</path> 144<b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your
145<path>/etc/fstab</path>
154too: 146too:
155</p> 147</p>
156 148
157<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab"> 149<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
158none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0 150none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
165<pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab"> 157<pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
166none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0 158none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
167</pre> 159</pre>
168 160
169<p> 161<p>
170Reread your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 162Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
171</p> 163</p>
172 164
173</body> 165</body>
174</subsection> 166</subsection>
175</section> 167</section>
178<subsection> 170<subsection>
179<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title> 171<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
180<body> 172<body>
181 173
182<p> 174<p>
183One of the choices the user has to make is name his PC. This seems to be quite 175One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
184easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the appropriate 176quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
185name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you choose can 177appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
186be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system 178choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
187<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>. 179<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
188</p> 180</p>
189 181
190<p> 182<p>
191We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname: 183We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
208one), you need to define that one too: 200one), you need to define that one too:
209</p> 201</p>
210 202
211<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname"> 203<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
212# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i> 204# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
205</pre>
206
207<p>
208Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
209</p>
210
211<pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel">
212# <i>rc-update add domainname default</i>
213</pre> 213</pre>
214 214
215</body> 215</body>
216</subsection> 216</subsection>
217<subsection> 217<subsection>
249iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>" 249iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
250</pre> 250</pre>
251 251
252<p> 252<p>
253If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 253If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c>
254to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>.
254to <c>dhcp</c>. However, if you need to setup your network manually and you're 255If you need to setup your network manually and you're
255not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 256not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri
256link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network 257link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network
257Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already. 258Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
258</p> 259</p>
259 260
260<p> 261<p>
261So lets give two examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static IP 262So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static
262(192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and gateway 263IP (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and
263192.168.0.1: 264gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for
265rp-pppoe usage:
264</p> 266</p>
265 267
266<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net"> 268<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
267<comment>(For DHCP:)</comment> 269<comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
268iface_eth0="dhcp" 270iface_eth0="dhcp"
271<comment>Some network admins require that you use the</comment>
272<comment>hostname and domainname provided by the DHCP server.</comment>
273<comment>In that case, add the following to let dhcpcd use them.</comment>
274<comment>That will override your own hostname and domainname definitions.</comment>
275dhcpcd_eth0="-HD"
276<comment>If you intend on using NTP to keep your machine clock synchronized, use</comment>
277<comment>the -N option to prevent dhcpcd from overwriting your /etc/ntp.conf file</comment>
278dhcpcd_eth0="-N"
269 279
270<comment>(For static IP:)</comment> 280<comment>(For static IP)</comment>
271iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0" 281iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
272gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1" 282gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
283
284<comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
285iface_eth0="up"
273</pre> 286</pre>
274 287
275<p> 288<p>
276If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables, 289If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
277like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable 290like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
319<p> 332<p>
320You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in 333You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
321<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses 334<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
322for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your 335for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
323internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5), 336internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
324<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (this system) you would 337<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would
325open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values: 338open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
326</p> 339</p>
327 340
328<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts"> 341<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
329# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i> 342# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
330</pre> 343</pre>
331 344
332<pre caption="Filling in the networking information"> 345<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
333127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork localhost 346127.0.0.1 localhost
334192.168.0.5 jenny 347192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
335192.168.0.56 benny 348192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
349192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
336</pre> 350</pre>
337 351
338<p> 352<p>
339If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name 353If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
340resolution) a single line is sufficient: 354resolution) a single line is sufficient:
341</p> 355</p>
342 356
343<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs"> 357<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
344127.0.0.1 localhost tux 358127.0.0.1 localhost
345</pre> 359</pre>
346 360
347<p> 361<p>
348Save and exit the editor to continue. 362Save and exit the editor to continue.
349</p> 363</p>
350 364
351<p> 365<p>
352If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri 366If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
353link="#doc_chap4">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the 367link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
354following topic on PCMCIA. 368following topic on PCMCIA.
355</p> 369</p>
356 370
357</body> 371</body>
358</subsection> 372</subsection>
359<subsection> 373<subsection>
360<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title> 374<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
361<body> 375<body>
362 376
377<note>
378pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
379</note>
380
363<p> 381<p>
364PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package: 382PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. The
383<c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary to avoid installing XFree86 at this moment:
365</p> 384</p>
366 385
367<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 386<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
368# <i>emerge --usepkg pcmcia-cs</i> 387# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
369</pre> 388</pre>
370 389
371<p> 390<p>
372When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>boot</e> 391When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
373runlevel: 392runlevel:
374</p> 393</p>
375 394
376<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel"> 395<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
377# <i>rc-update add pcmcia boot</i> 396# <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
378</pre> 397</pre>
379 398
380</body> 399</body>
381</subsection> 400</subsection>
382</section> 401</section>
393# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 412# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
394</pre> 413</pre>
395 414
396<p> 415<p>
397As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary 416As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
398configuration variables. When you're finished configuring 417configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if
399<path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit to continue. 418you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on
419your keyboard.
420</p>
421
422<note>
423Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
424select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
425</note>
426
427<p>
428<b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use
429ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have
430to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
431</p>
432
433<p>
434When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then
435continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>.
400</p> 436</p>
401 437
402</body> 438</body>
403</section> 439</section>
404</sections> 440</sections>

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