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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.39 2004/08/01 11:20:51 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.114 2012/04/09 10:03:26 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10
11<abstract>
12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
14proceed.
15</abstract>
16
17<version>20</version>
18<date>2012-04-08</date>
19
10<section> 20<section>
11<title>Filesystem Information</title> 21<title>Filesystem Information</title>
12<subsection> 22<subsection>
13<title>What is fstab?</title> 23<title>What is fstab?</title>
14<body> 24<body>
15 25
16<p> 26<p>
17Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in 27Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
18<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions 28<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mount points of those partitions
19(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted 29(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
20(special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not, 30and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
21etc.). 31them or not, etc.)
22</p> 32</p>
23 33
24</body> 34</body>
25</subsection> 35</subsection>
26<subsection> 36<subsection>
37<li> 47<li>
38 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device 48 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
39 file) 49 file)
40</li> 50</li>
41<li> 51<li>
42 The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be 52 The second field shows the <b>mount point</b> at which the partition should be
43 mounted 53 mounted
44</li> 54</li>
45<li> 55<li>
46 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition 56 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
47</li> 57</li>
48<li> 58<li>
49 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it 59 The fourth field shows the <b>mount options</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
50 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions, 60 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mount options,
51 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full 61 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
52 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated. 62 listing. Multiple mount options are comma-separated.
53</li> 63</li>
54<li> 64<li>
55 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 65 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
56 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 66 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
57</li> 67</li>
58<li> 68<li>
59 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which 69 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
60 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly. 70 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
61 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> 71 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
62 (or <c>0</c> in case a filesystem check isn't necessary). 72 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
63</li> 73</li>
64</ul> 74</ul>
65 75
66<p> 76<impo>
67So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 77The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
68<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 78fstab file</e>. You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
69</p> 79</impo>
70 80
71<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 81<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
72# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 82# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
73</pre> 83</pre>
74 84
85</body>
86<body test="func:keyval('/boot')">
87
75<p> 88<p>
76Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 89Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
77partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a 90partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a
78<path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim. 91<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it.
79</p>
80
81<p> 92</p>
93
94<p>
82In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the 95In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
83<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. 96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
84It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down: 97filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
85</p> 98</p>
86 99
87<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 100<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
88/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2 101<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
89</pre> 102</pre>
90 103
91<p> 104<p>
92Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted 105Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
93automatically. Those people should substitute <c>defaults</c> with 106automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
94<c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to manually mount this partition 107substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
95every time you want to use it. 108manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
96</p>
97
98<p> 109</p>
99Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c> 110
100option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times 111</body>
101aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway): 112<body>
113
102</p> 114<p>
103 115Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for
104<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 116your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives,
105/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 117for those too.
106</pre>
107
108<p> 118</p>
109If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for 119
110<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
111</p> 120<p>
121Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
122</p>
112 123
113<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines"> 124<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
114/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 125<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
126/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
127/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
128
129/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
130
131proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
132shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
133</pre>
134
135<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
136<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
115/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 137/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
116/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 138/dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
117</pre>
118 139
119<p> 140/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
120To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c> 141
121(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other 142proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
122partitions or drives, for those too): 143shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
123</p> 144</pre>
124 145
125<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example"> 146<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
126/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 147/dev/sda1 / ext3 noatime 0 1
127/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 148/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
149/dev/sda4 /usr ext3 noatime 0 2
150/dev/sda5 /var ext3 noatime 0 2
151/dev/sda6 /home ext3 noatime 0 2
152
153<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment>
154openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
155
156/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
157
158proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
159shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
160</pre>
161
162<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or
163func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
128/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 164/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
165/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
129 166
167/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
168
130none /proc proc defaults 0 0 169proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
131none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0 170shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
132
133/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
134</pre> 171</pre>
135 172
136<p> 173<p>
137<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for 174<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
138removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and 175removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
139<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD. 176<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
140</p> 177</p>
141 178
142<p> 179<p>
143Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a 180To improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
144<b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your 181mount option, which results in a faster system since access times
145<path>/etc/fstab</path> 182aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway).
146too:
147</p>
148
149<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
150none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
151</pre>
152
153<p> 183</p>
154If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
155</p>
156
157<pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
158none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
159</pre>
160 184
161<p> 185<p>
162Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 186Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
163</p> 187</p>
164 188
166</subsection> 190</subsection>
167</section> 191</section>
168<section> 192<section>
169<title>Networking Information</title> 193<title>Networking Information</title>
170<subsection> 194<subsection>
171<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title> 195<title>Host name, Domainname, etc</title>
172<body> 196<body>
173 197
174<p> 198<p>
175One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be 199One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
176quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the 200quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
177appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you 201appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
178choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system 202choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
179<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>. 203<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
180</p> 204</p>
181 205
182<p>
183We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
184</p>
185
186<pre caption="Setting the hostname"> 206<pre caption="Setting the host name">
187# <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i> 207# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
188</pre>
189 208
209<comment>(Set the hostname variable to your host name)</comment>
210hostname="<i>tux</i>"
211</pre>
212
190<p> 213<p>
191Second we set the domainname: 214Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>.
215You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you
216have a DNS server but not a DHCP server. You don't need to worry about DNS or
217domainnames if your networking is setup for DHCP.
192</p> 218</p>
193 219
194<pre caption="Setting the domainname"> 220<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
195# <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i> 221# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
222
223<comment>(Set the dns_domain variable to your domain name)</comment>
224dns_domain_lo="<i>homenetwork</i>"
196</pre> 225</pre>
226
227<note>
228If you choose not to set a domainname, you can get rid of the "This is
229hostname.(none)" messages at your login screen by editing
230<path>/etc/issue</path>. Just delete the string <c>.\O</c> from that file.
231</note>
197 232
198<p> 233<p>
199If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have 234If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
200one), you need to define that one too: 235one), you need to define that one too:
201</p> 236</p>
202 237
203<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname"> 238<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
204# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i> 239# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
205</pre>
206 240
207<p> 241<comment>(Set the nis_domain variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
208Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel: 242nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
209</p> 243</pre>
210 244
211<pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel"> 245<note>
212# <i>rc-update add domainname default</i> 246For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
213</pre> 247provided in <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> which
248can be read using <c>bzless</c>. Also, you may want to emerge <c>openresolv</c>
249to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
250</note>
214 251
215</body> 252</body>
216</subsection> 253</subsection>
217<subsection> 254<subsection>
218<title>Configuring your Network</title> 255<title>Configuring your Network</title>
219<body> 256<body>
220 257
221<p> 258<p>
222Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember 259Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
223that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was 260that the networking you set up in the beginning of the Gentoo installation was
224just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for 261just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
225your Gentoo system permanently. 262your Gentoo system permanently.
226</p> 263</p>
227 264
265<note>
266More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
267bonding, bridging, 802.1Q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
268link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
269</note>
270
228<p> 271<p>
229All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 272All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
230a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup 273a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
231networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :) 274networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
232</p> 275commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
233 276<path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path>.
234<p> 277</p>
278
279<p>
280DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
281client. This is described later in <uri
282link="?part=1&amp;chap=9#networking-tools">Installing Necessary System
283Tools</uri>. Do not forget to install a DHCP client.
284</p>
285
286<p>
287If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
288specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
235First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> 289<path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> is used in
236is used in this example): 290this example):
237</p> 291</p>
238 292
239<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing"> 293<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
240# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i> 294# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
241</pre> 295</pre>
242 296
243<p> 297<p>
244The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following 298You will see the following file:
245syntax:
246</p>
247
248<pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
249iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
250</pre>
251
252<p> 299</p>
253If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 300
254to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>. 301<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
255If you need to setup your network manually and you're 302# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
256not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 303# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
257link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network 304# please review /usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2 and save
258Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already. 305# your configuration in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
306</pre>
307
259</p> 308<p>
260 309To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
310to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
261<p> 311</p>
262So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static 312
263IP (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and 313<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
264gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for 314config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255"
265rp-pppoe usage: 315routes_eth0="default via 192.168.0.1"
316</pre>
317
266</p> 318<p>
267 319To use DHCP, define <c>config_eth0</c>:
268<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
269<comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
270iface_eth0="dhcp"
271<comment># Some network admins require that you use the</comment>
272<comment># hostname and domainname provided by the DHCP server.</comment>
273<comment># In that case, add the following to let dhcpcd use them.</comment>
274<comment># That will override your own hostname and domainname definitions.</comment>
275dhcpcd_eth0="-HD"
276<comment># If you intend on using NTP to keep your machine clock synchronized, use</comment>
277<comment># the -N option to prevent dhcpcd from overwriting your /etc/ntp.conf file</comment>
278dhcpcd_eth0="-N"
279
280<comment>(For static IP)</comment>
281iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
282gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
283
284<comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
285iface_eth0="up"
286</pre>
287
288<p> 320</p>
289If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables, 321
290like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable 322<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
291shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer. 323config_eth0="dhcp"
324</pre>
325
326<p>
327Please read <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> for a
328list of all available options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if
329you need to set specific DHCP options.
330</p>
331
332<p>
333If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
334<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
292</p> 335</p>
293 336
294<p> 337<p>
295Now save the configuration and exit to continue. 338Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
296</p> 339</p>
300<subsection> 343<subsection>
301<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 344<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
302<body> 345<body>
303 346
304<p> 347<p>
305To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the 348To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
306default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 349default runlevel.
307the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
308</p> 350</p>
309 351
310<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 352<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
353# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
354# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth0</i>
311# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i> 355# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
312</pre> 356</pre>
313 357
314<p> 358<p>
315If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate 359If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
316<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can 360<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. just like you did with
317use <c>ln</c> to do this: 361<path>net.eth0</path>.
318</p>
319
320<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
321# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
322# <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
323# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
324</pre> 362</p>
325 363
326</body> 364</body>
327</subsection> 365</subsection>
328<subsection> 366<subsection>
329<title>Writing Down Network Information</title> 367<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
330<body> 368<body>
331 369
332<p> 370<p>
333You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in 371You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
334<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses 372<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving host names to IP addresses for
335for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your 373hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. You need to define your system.
336internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5), 374You may also want to define other systems on your network if you don't want to
337<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would 375set up your own internal DNS system.
338open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
339</p> 376</p>
340 377
341<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts"> 378<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
342# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i> 379# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
343</pre> 380</pre>
344 381
345<pre caption="Filling in the networking information"> 382<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
346127.0.0.1 localhost 383<comment>(This defines the current system)</comment>
384127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
385
386<comment>(Define extra systems on your network,
387they need to have a static IP to be defined this way.)</comment>
347192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny 388192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
348192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny 389192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
349192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
350</pre>
351
352<p>
353If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
354resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
355system <c>tux.homenetwork</c>:
356</p>
357
358<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
359127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
360</pre> 390</pre>
361 391
362<p> 392<p>
363Save and exit the editor to continue. 393Save and exit the editor to continue.
364</p> 394</p>
365 395
366<p> 396<p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
367If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri 397If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
368link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the 398link="#sysinfo">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
369following topic on PCMCIA. 399following topic on PCMCIA.
370</p> 400</p>
371 401
372</body> 402</body>
373</subsection> 403</subsection>
374<subsection> 404<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
375<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title> 405<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
376<body> 406<body>
377 407
408<p>
409PCMCIA users should first install the <c>pcmciautils</c> package.
410</p>
411
412<pre caption="Installing pcmciautils">
413# <i>emerge pcmciautils</i>
414</pre>
415
416</body>
417</subsection>
418</section>
419
420<section id="sysinfo">
421<title>System Information</title>
422<subsection>
423<title>Root Password</title>
424<body>
425
426<p>
427First we set the root password by typing:
428</p>
429
430<pre caption="Setting the root password">
431# <i>passwd</i>
432</pre>
433
434</body>
435</subsection>
436<subsection>
437<title>System Information</title>
438<body>
439
440<p>
441Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to configure the services, startup,
442and shutdown of your system. Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all
443the comments in the file.
444</p>
445
446<pre caption="Configuring services">
447# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
448</pre>
449
450<p>
451When you're finished configuring these two files, save them and exit.
452</p>
453
454<p>
455Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
456Edit it to configure your keyboard.
457</p>
458
459<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
460# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
461</pre>
462
463<p>
464Take special care with the <c>keymap</c> variable. If you select the wrong
465<c>keymap</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
466</p>
467
468<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
469PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems.
470</note>
471
472<p>
473When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
474exit.
475</p>
476
477<p>
478Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
479according to your needs.
480</p>
481
482<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/hwclock">
483# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock</i>
484</pre>
485
486<p>
487If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>clock="local"</c>
488to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
489</p>
490
491<p>
492When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path>, save and
493exit.
494</p>
495
496<p>
497You should define the timezone that you previously copied to
498<path>/etc/localtime</path> in the <path>/etc/timezone</path> file so that
499further upgrades of the <c>sys-libs/timezone-data</c> package can update
500<path>/etc/localtime</path> automatically. For instance, if you used the
501Europe/Brussels timezone, you would write <c>Europe/Brussels</c> in the
502<path>/etc/timezone</path> file.
503</p>
504
505</body>
506</subsection>
507
508<subsection>
509<title>Configure locales</title>
510<body>
511
512<p>
513You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You have to
514specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
515</p>
516
517<pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
518# <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
519</pre>
520
521<p>
522The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
523German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
524</p>
525
526<pre caption="Specify your locales">
527en_US ISO-8859-1
528en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
529de_DE ISO-8859-1
530de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
531</pre>
532
378<note> 533<note>
379pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms. 534You can select your desired locales in the list given by running <c>locale -a</c>.
380</note> 535</note>
381 536
382<p> 537<warn>
383PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. The 538We strongly suggest that you should use at least one UTF-8 locale because some
384<c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment: 539applications may require it.
540</warn>
541
385</p> 542<p>
386 543The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generates all the locales you
387<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 544have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
388# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
389</pre>
390
391<p> 545</p>
392When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e> 546
393runlevel: 547<pre caption="Running locale-gen">
548# <i>locale-gen</i>
549</pre>
550
394</p> 551<p>
395 552Once done, you now have the possibility to set the system-wide locale settings
396<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel"> 553in the <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> file:
397# <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
398</pre> 554</p>
399 555
400</body> 556<pre caption="Setting the default system locale in /etc/env.d/02locale">
401</subsection> 557LANG="de_DE.UTF-8"
402</section> 558LC_COLLATE="C"
403<section> 559</pre>
404<title>System Information</title> 560
561<p>
562And reload your environment:
563</p>
564
565<pre caption="Reload shell environment">
566# env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile
567</pre>
568
569<p>
570We made a full <uri link="../guide-localization.xml#doc_chap3">Localization
571Guide</uri> to help you through this process. You can also read our detailed
572<uri link="../utf-8.xml#doc_chap2">UTF-8 Guide</uri> for very specific
573informations to enable UTF-8 on your system.
574</p>
575
576<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
577Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
578Tools</uri>.
579</p>
580
405<body> 581</body>
406 582</subsection>
407<p> 583<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
408Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 584<title>Configuring the Console</title>
409Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
410</p>
411
412<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
413# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
414</pre>
415
416<p>
417As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
418configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if
419you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on
420your keyboard.
421</p>
422
423<note>
424Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
425select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
426</note>
427
428<p>
429<b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use
430ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have
431to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
432</p>
433
434<p>
435When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then
436continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>.
437</p>
438
439</body> 585<body>
586
587<p>
588If you are using a virtual console, you must uncomment the appropriate line in
589<path>/etc/inittab</path> for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
590</p>
591
592<pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab">
593hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0
594hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0
595</pre>
596
597<p>
598You should also take this time to verify that the appropriate console is
599listed in <path>/etc/securetty</path>.
600</p>
601
602<p>
603You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
604System Tools</uri>.
605</p>
606
607</body>
608</subsection>
440</section> 609</section>
441</sections> 610</sections>

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