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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.39 2004/08/01 11:20:51 swift Exp $ -->
8
1<sections> 9<sections>
2<section>
3<title>Timezone</title>
4<body>
5
6<p>
7You now need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
8located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a
9symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>:
10</p>
11
12<pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
13# <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
14<comment>(Suppose you want to use GTM:)</comment>
15# <i>ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
16</pre>
17
18</body>
19</section>
20<section> 10<section>
21<title>Filesystem Information</title> 11<title>Filesystem Information</title>
22<subsection> 12<subsection>
23<title>What is fstab?</title> 13<title>What is fstab?</title>
24<body> 14<body>
36<subsection> 26<subsection>
37<title>Creating /etc/fstab</title> 27<title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
38<body> 28<body>
39 29
40<p> 30<p>
41<path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntaxis. Every line consists of six 31<path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
42fields, seperated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has 32fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
43its own meaning: 33its own meaning:
44</p> 34</p>
45 35
46<ul> 36<ul>
47<li> 37<li>
57</li> 47</li>
58<li> 48<li>
59 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it 49 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
60 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions, 50 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
61 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full 51 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
62 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-seperated. 52 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
63</li> 53</li>
64<li> 54<li>
65 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 55 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
66 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 56 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
67</li> 57</li>
68<li> 58<li>
69 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> the order in which filesystems should 59 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
70 be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly. The root filesystem 60 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
71 should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> (or <c>0</c> in case 61 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
72 a filesystem check isn't necessary). 62 (or <c>0</c> in case a filesystem check isn't necessary).
73</li> 63</li>
74</ul> 64</ul>
75 65
76<p> 66<p>
77So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 67So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
81<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 71<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
82# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 72# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
83</pre> 73</pre>
84 74
85<p> 75<p>
86Lets take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 76Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
87partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a 77partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
88<path>/boot</path> partition, don't copy it verbatim. 78<path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim.
89</p> 79</p>
90 80
91<p> 81<p>
92In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the 82In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
93<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. It shouldn't 83<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
94be mounted automatically (<c>noauto</c>) but does need to be checked. So we 84It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
95would write down:
96</p> 85</p>
97 86
98<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 87<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
99/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto 1 2 88/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
89</pre>
90
91<p>
92Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
93automatically. Those people should substitute <c>defaults</c> with
94<c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to manually mount this partition
95every time you want to use it.
100</pre> 96</p>
101 97
102<p> 98<p>
103Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c> 99Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
104option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times 100option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
105aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway): 101aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
120/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 116/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
121</pre> 117</pre>
122 118
123<p> 119<p>
124To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c> 120To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
125(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and ofcourse, if you have other 121(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
126partitions or drives, for those too): 122partitions or drives, for those too):
127</p> 123</p>
128 124
129<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example"> 125<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
130/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 126/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
143<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD. 139<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
144</p> 140</p>
145 141
146<p> 142<p>
147Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a 143Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
148SPARC-user, you should add the following line to your <path>/etc/fstab</path> 144<b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your
145<path>/etc/fstab</path>
149too: 146too:
150</p> 147</p>
151 148
152<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab"> 149<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
153none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0 150none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
154</pre> 151</pre>
155 152
153<p>
154If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
156<p> 155</p>
156
157<pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
158none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
159</pre>
160
161<p>
157Reread your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 162Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
158</p> 163</p>
159 164
160</body> 165</body>
161</subsection> 166</subsection>
162</section> 167</section>
165<subsection> 170<subsection>
166<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title> 171<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
167<body> 172<body>
168 173
169<p> 174<p>
170One of the choices the user has to make is name his PC. This seems to be quite 175One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
171easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the appropriate 176quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
172name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you choose can 177appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
173be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system 178choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
174<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>. 179<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
175</p> 180</p>
176 181
177<p> 182<p>
178We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname: 183We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
195one), you need to define that one too: 200one), you need to define that one too:
196</p> 201</p>
197 202
198<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname"> 203<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
199# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i> 204# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
205</pre>
206
207<p>
208Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
209</p>
210
211<pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel">
212# <i>rc-update add domainname default</i>
200</pre> 213</pre>
201 214
202</body> 215</body>
203</subsection> 216</subsection>
204<subsection> 217<subsection>
236iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>" 249iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
237</pre> 250</pre>
238 251
239<p> 252<p>
240If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 253If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c>
254to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>.
241to <c>dhcp</c>. However, if you need to setup your network manually and you're 255If you need to setup your network manually and you're
242not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 256not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri
243link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network 257link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network
244Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already. 258Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
245</p> 259</p>
246 260
247<p> 261<p>
248So lets give two examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static IP 262So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static
249(192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and gateway 263IP (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and
250192.168.0.1: 264gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for
265rp-pppoe usage:
251</p> 266</p>
252 267
253<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net"> 268<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
254<comment>(For DHCP:)</comment> 269<comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
255iface_eth0="dhcp" 270iface_eth0="dhcp"
271<comment># Some network admins require that you use the</comment>
272<comment># hostname and domainname provided by the DHCP server.</comment>
273<comment># In that case, add the following to let dhcpcd use them.</comment>
274<comment># That will override your own hostname and domainname definitions.</comment>
275dhcpcd_eth0="-HD"
276<comment># If you intend on using NTP to keep your machine clock synchronized, use</comment>
277<comment># the -N option to prevent dhcpcd from overwriting your /etc/ntp.conf file</comment>
278dhcpcd_eth0="-N"
256 279
257<comment>(For static IP:)</comment> 280<comment>(For static IP)</comment>
258iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0" 281iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
259gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1" 282gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
283
284<comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
285iface_eth0="up"
260</pre> 286</pre>
261 287
262<p> 288<p>
263If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables, 289If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
264like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable 290like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
306<p> 332<p>
307You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in 333You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
308<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses 334<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
309for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your 335for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
310internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5), 336internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
311<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (this system) you would 337<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would
312open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values: 338open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
313</p> 339</p>
314 340
315<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts"> 341<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
316# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i> 342# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
317</pre> 343</pre>
318 344
319<pre caption="Filling in the networking information"> 345<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
320127.0.0.1 localhost tux 346127.0.0.1 localhost
321192.168.0.5 jenny 347192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
322192.168.0.56 benny 348192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
349192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
323</pre> 350</pre>
324 351
325<p> 352<p>
326If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name 353If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
327resolution) a single line is sufficient: 354resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
355system <c>tux.homenetwork</c>:
328</p> 356</p>
329 357
330<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs"> 358<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
331127.0.0.1 localhost tux 359127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
332</pre> 360</pre>
333 361
334<p> 362<p>
335Save and exit the editor to continue. 363Save and exit the editor to continue.
336</p> 364</p>
337 365
338<p> 366<p>
339If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri 367If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
340link="#doc_chap4">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the 368link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
341following topic on PCMCIA. 369following topic on PCMCIA.
342</p> 370</p>
343 371
344</body> 372</body>
345</subsection> 373</subsection>
346<subsection> 374<subsection>
347<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title> 375<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
348<body> 376<body>
349 377
378<note>
379pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
380</note>
381
350<p> 382<p>
351PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package: 383PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. The
384<c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
352</p> 385</p>
353 386
354<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 387<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
355# <i>emerge -k pcmcia-cs</i> 388# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
356</pre> 389</pre>
357 390
358<p> 391<p>
359When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>boot</e> 392When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
360runlevel: 393runlevel:
361</p> 394</p>
362 395
363<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel"> 396<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
364# <i>rc-update add pcmcia boot</i> 397# <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
365</pre> 398</pre>
366 399
367</body> 400</body>
368</subsection> 401</subsection>
369</section> 402</section>
380# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 413# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
381</pre> 414</pre>
382 415
383<p> 416<p>
384As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary 417As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
385configuration variables. When you're finished configuring 418configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if
386<path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit to continue. 419you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on
420your keyboard.
421</p>
422
423<note>
424Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
425select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
426</note>
427
428<p>
429<b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use
430ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have
431to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
432</p>
433
434<p>
435When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then
436continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>.
387</p> 437</p>
388 438
389</body> 439</body>
390</section> 440</section>
391</sections> 441</sections>

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