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2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.39 2004/08/01 11:20:51 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.50 2004/11/09 13:01:52 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10
11<version>1.49</version>
12<date>October 23, 2004</date>
13
10<section> 14<section>
11<title>Filesystem Information</title> 15<title>Filesystem Information</title>
12<subsection> 16<subsection>
13<title>What is fstab?</title> 17<title>What is fstab?</title>
14<body> 18<body>
15 19
16<p> 20<p>
17Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in 21Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
18<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions 22<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
19(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted 23(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
20(special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not, 24and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
21etc.). 25them or not, etc.)
22</p> 26</p>
23 27
24</body> 28</body>
25</subsection> 29</subsection>
26<subsection> 30<subsection>
46 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition 50 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
47</li> 51</li>
48<li> 52<li>
49 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it 53 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
50 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions, 54 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
51 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full 55 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
52 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated. 56 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
53</li> 57</li>
54<li> 58<li>
55 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 59 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
56 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 60 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
57</li> 61</li>
58<li> 62<li>
59 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which 63 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
60 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly. 64 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
61 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> 65 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
62 (or <c>0</c> in case a filesystem check isn't necessary). 66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
63</li> 67</li>
64</ul> 68</ul>
65 69
66<p> 70<p>
71The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab
67So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 72file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
68<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 73<path>/etc/fstab</path>:
69</p> 74</p>
70 75
71<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 76<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
72# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 77# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
88/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2 93/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
89</pre> 94</pre>
90 95
91<p> 96<p>
92Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted 97Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
93automatically. Those people should substitute <c>defaults</c> with 98automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
94<c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to manually mount this partition 99substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
95every time you want to use it. 100manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
96</p> 101</p>
97 102
98<p> 103<p>
99Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c> 104Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
100option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times 105option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
101aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway): 106aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
102</p> 107</p>
103 108
104<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 109<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
105/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 110/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
106</pre> 111</pre>
107 112
108<p> 113<p>
109If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for 114If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
110<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition): 115<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
111</p> 116</p>
112 117
113<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines"> 118<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
114/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 119/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
115/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 120/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
116/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 121/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
117</pre> 122</pre>
118 123
119<p> 124<p>
121(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other 126(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
122partitions or drives, for those too): 127partitions or drives, for those too):
123</p> 128</p>
124 129
125<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example"> 130<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
126/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 131/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
127/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 132/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
128/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 133/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
129 134
130none /proc proc defaults 0 0 135none /proc proc defaults 0 0
131none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0 136none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
132 137
133/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 138/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
134</pre> 139</pre>
135 140
136<p> 141<p>
225your Gentoo system permanently. 230your Gentoo system permanently.
226</p> 231</p>
227 232
228<p> 233<p>
229All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 234All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
230a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup 235a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
231networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :) 236networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
232</p> 237</p>
233 238
234<p> 239<p>
235First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> 240First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
250</pre> 255</pre>
251 256
252<p> 257<p>
253If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 258If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c>
254to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>. 259to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>.
255If you need to setup your network manually and you're 260If you need to set up your network manually and you're
256not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 261not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri
257link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network 262link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#network_term">Understanding Network
258Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already. 263Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
259</p> 264</p>
260 265
261<p> 266<p>
262So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static 267So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static
300<subsection> 305<subsection>
301<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 306<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
302<body> 307<body>
303 308
304<p> 309<p>
305To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the 310To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
306default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 311default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
307the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script. 312the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
308</p> 313</p>
309 314
310<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 315<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
378<note> 383<note>
379pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms. 384pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
380</note> 385</note>
381 386
382<p> 387<p>
383PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. The 388PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
389includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
390using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
384<c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment: 391to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
385</p> 392</p>
386 393
387<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 394<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
388# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i> 395# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
389</pre> 396</pre>
399 406
400</body> 407</body>
401</subsection> 408</subsection>
402</section> 409</section>
403<section> 410<section>
411<title>System Information</title>
412<subsection>
413<title>Root Password</title>
414<body>
415
416<p>
417First we set the root password by typing:
418</p>
419
420<pre caption="Setting the root password">
421# <i>passwd</i>
422</pre>
423
424<p>
425If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
426<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
427</p>
428
429<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
430# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
431</pre>
432
433</body>
434</subsection>
435<subsection>
404<title>System Information</title> 436<title>System Information</title>
405<body> 437<body>
406 438
407<p> 439<p>
408Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 440Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
431to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>. 463to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
432</p> 464</p>
433 465
434<p> 466<p>
435When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then 467When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then
436continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>. 468continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
469Tools</uri>.
437</p> 470</p>
438 471
439</body> 472</body>
473</subsection>
440</section> 474</section>
441</sections> 475</sections>

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