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2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
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6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.39 2004/08/01 11:20:51 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.57 2005/04/07 16:12:35 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10
11<version>2.1</version>
12<date>2005-04-07</date>
13
10<section> 14<section>
11<title>Filesystem Information</title> 15<title>Filesystem Information</title>
12<subsection> 16<subsection>
13<title>What is fstab?</title> 17<title>What is fstab?</title>
14<body> 18<body>
15 19
16<p> 20<p>
17Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in 21Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
18<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions 22<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
19(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted 23(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
20(special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not, 24and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
21etc.). 25them or not, etc.)
22</p> 26</p>
23 27
24</body> 28</body>
25</subsection> 29</subsection>
26<subsection> 30<subsection>
46 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition 50 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
47</li> 51</li>
48<li> 52<li>
49 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it 53 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
50 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions, 54 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
51 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full 55 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
52 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated. 56 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
53</li> 57</li>
54<li> 58<li>
55 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 59 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
56 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 60 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
57</li> 61</li>
58<li> 62<li>
59 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which 63 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
60 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly. 64 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
61 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> 65 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
62 (or <c>0</c> in case a filesystem check isn't necessary). 66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
63</li> 67</li>
64</ul> 68</ul>
65 69
66<p> 70<p>
71The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab
67So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 72file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
68<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 73<path>/etc/fstab</path>:
69</p> 74</p>
70 75
71<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 76<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
72# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 77# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
88/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2 93/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
89</pre> 94</pre>
90 95
91<p> 96<p>
92Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted 97Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
93automatically. Those people should substitute <c>defaults</c> with 98automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
94<c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to manually mount this partition 99substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
95every time you want to use it. 100manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
96</p> 101</p>
97 102
98<p> 103<p>
99Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c> 104Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
100option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times 105option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
101aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway): 106aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
102</p> 107</p>
103 108
104<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 109<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
105/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 110/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
106</pre> 111</pre>
107 112
108<p> 113<p>
109If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for 114If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
110<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition): 115<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
111</p> 116</p>
112 117
113<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines"> 118<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
114/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 119/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
115/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 120/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
116/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 121/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
117</pre> 122</pre>
118 123
119<p> 124<p>
121(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other 126(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
122partitions or drives, for those too): 127partitions or drives, for those too):
123</p> 128</p>
124 129
125<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example"> 130<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
126/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 131/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
127/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 132/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
128/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 133/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
129 134
130none /proc proc defaults 0 0 135none /proc proc defaults 0 0
131none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0 136none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
132 137
133/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 138/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
134</pre> 139</pre>
135 140
136<p> 141<p>
146too: 151too:
147</p> 152</p>
148 153
149<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab"> 154<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
150none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0 155none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
151</pre>
152
153<p>
154If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
155</p>
156
157<pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
158none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
159</pre> 156</pre>
160 157
161<p> 158<p>
162Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 159Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
163</p> 160</p>
225your Gentoo system permanently. 222your Gentoo system permanently.
226</p> 223</p>
227 224
228<p> 225<p>
229All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 226All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
230a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup 227a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
231networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :) 228networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
232</p> 229</p>
233 230
234<p> 231<p>
235First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> 232First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
250</pre> 247</pre>
251 248
252<p> 249<p>
253If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 250If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c>
254to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>. 251to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>.
255If you need to setup your network manually and you're 252If you need to set up your network manually and you're
256not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 253not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri
257link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network 254link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#network_term">Understanding Network
258Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already. 255Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
259</p> 256</p>
260 257
261<p> 258<p>
262So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static 259So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static
300<subsection> 297<subsection>
301<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 298<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
302<body> 299<body>
303 300
304<p> 301<p>
305To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the 302To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
306default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 303default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
307the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script. 304the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
308</p> 305</p>
309 306
310<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 307<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
350</pre> 347</pre>
351 348
352<p> 349<p>
353If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name 350If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
354resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your 351resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
355system <c>tux.homenetwork</c>: 352system <c>tux</c>:
356</p> 353</p>
357 354
358<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs"> 355<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
359127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost 356127.0.0.1 localhost tux
360</pre> 357</pre>
361 358
362<p> 359<p>
363Save and exit the editor to continue. 360Save and exit the editor to continue.
364</p> 361</p>
378<note> 375<note>
379pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms. 376pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
380</note> 377</note>
381 378
382<p> 379<p>
383PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. The 380PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
381includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
382using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
384<c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment: 383to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
385</p> 384</p>
386 385
387<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 386<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
388# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i> 387# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
389</pre> 388</pre>
399 398
400</body> 399</body>
401</subsection> 400</subsection>
402</section> 401</section>
403<section> 402<section>
403<title>System Information</title>
404<subsection>
405<title>Root Password</title>
406<body>
407
408<p>
409First we set the root password by typing:
410</p>
411
412<pre caption="Setting the root password">
413# <i>passwd</i>
414</pre>
415
416<p>
417If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
418<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
419</p>
420
421<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
422# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
423</pre>
424
425</body>
426</subsection>
427<subsection>
404<title>System Information</title> 428<title>System Information</title>
405<body> 429<body>
406 430
407<p> 431<p>
408Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 432Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
431to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>. 455to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
432</p> 456</p>
433 457
434<p> 458<p>
435When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then 459When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then
436continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>. 460continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
461Tools</uri>.
437</p> 462</p>
438 463
439</body> 464</body>
465</subsection>
440</section> 466</section>
441</sections> 467</sections>

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