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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.39 2004/08/01 11:20:51 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.74 2005/11/19 09:31:05 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10
11<version>2.15</version>
12<date>2005-11-19</date>
13
10<section> 14<section>
11<title>Filesystem Information</title> 15<title>Filesystem Information</title>
12<subsection> 16<subsection>
13<title>What is fstab?</title> 17<title>What is fstab?</title>
14<body> 18<body>
15 19
16<p> 20<p>
17Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in 21Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
18<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions 22<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
19(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted 23(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
20(special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not, 24and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
21etc.). 25them or not, etc.)
22</p> 26</p>
23 27
24</body> 28</body>
25</subsection> 29</subsection>
26<subsection> 30<subsection>
46 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition 50 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
47</li> 51</li>
48<li> 52<li>
49 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it 53 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
50 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions, 54 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
51 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full 55 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
52 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated. 56 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
53</li> 57</li>
54<li> 58<li>
55 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 59 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
56 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 60 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
57</li> 61</li>
58<li> 62<li>
59 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which 63 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
60 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly. 64 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
61 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> 65 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
62 (or <c>0</c> in case a filesystem check isn't necessary). 66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
63</li> 67</li>
64</ul> 68</ul>
65 69
66<p> 70<p>
71The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab
67So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 72file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
68<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 73<path>/etc/fstab</path>:
69</p> 74</p>
70 75
71<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 76<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
72# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 77# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
88/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2 93/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
89</pre> 94</pre>
90 95
91<p> 96<p>
92Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted 97Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
93automatically. Those people should substitute <c>defaults</c> with 98automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
94<c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to manually mount this partition 99substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
95every time you want to use it. 100manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
96</p> 101</p>
97 102
98<p> 103<p>
99Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c> 104Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
100option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times 105option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
101aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway): 106aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
102</p> 107</p>
103 108
104<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 109<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
105/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 110/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
106</pre> 111</pre>
107 112
108<p> 113<p>
109If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for 114If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
110<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition): 115<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
111</p> 116</p>
112 117
113<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines"> 118<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
114/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 119/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
115/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 120/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
116/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 121/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
117</pre> 122</pre>
118 123
119<p> 124<p>
121(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other 126(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
122partitions or drives, for those too): 127partitions or drives, for those too):
123</p> 128</p>
124 129
125<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example"> 130<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
126/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 131/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
127/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 132/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
128/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 133/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
129 134
130none /proc proc defaults 0 0 135none /proc proc defaults 0 0
131none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0 136none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
132 137
133/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 138/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
134</pre> 139</pre>
135 140
136<p> 141<p>
146too: 151too:
147</p> 152</p>
148 153
149<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab"> 154<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
150none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0 155none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
151</pre>
152
153<p>
154If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
155</p>
156
157<pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
158none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
159</pre> 156</pre>
160 157
161<p> 158<p>
162Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 159Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
163</p> 160</p>
182<p> 179<p>
183We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname: 180We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
184</p> 181</p>
185 182
186<pre caption="Setting the hostname"> 183<pre caption="Setting the hostname">
187# <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i> 184# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
185
186<comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your hostname)</comment>
187HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>"
188</pre> 188</pre>
189 189
190<p> 190<p>
191Second we set the domainname: 191Second we set the domainname:
192</p> 192</p>
193 193
194<pre caption="Setting the domainname"> 194<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
195# <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i> 195# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i>
196
197<comment>(Set the DNSDOMAIN variable to your domain name)</comment>
198DNSDOMAIN="<i>homenetwork</i>"
196</pre> 199</pre>
197 200
198<p> 201<p>
199If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have 202If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
200one), you need to define that one too: 203one), you need to define that one too:
201</p> 204</p>
202 205
203<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname"> 206<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
204# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i> 207# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i>
208
209<comment>(Set the NISDOMAIN variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
210NISDOMAIN="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
205</pre> 211</pre>
206 212
207<p> 213<p>
208Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel: 214Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
209</p> 215</p>
218<title>Configuring your Network</title> 224<title>Configuring your Network</title>
219<body> 225<body>
220 226
221<p> 227<p>
222Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember 228Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
223that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was 229that the networking you set up in the beginning of the Gentoo installation was
224just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for 230just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
225your Gentoo system permanently. 231your Gentoo system permanently.
226</p> 232</p>
227 233
234<note>
235More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
236bonding, bridging, 802.1Q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
237link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
238</note>
239
228<p> 240<p>
229All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 241All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
230a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup 242a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
231networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :) 243networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
232</p> 244commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
233 245<path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>.
234<p> 246</p>
247
248<p>
249DHCP is used by default and does not require any further configuration.
250</p>
251
252<p>
253If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
254specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
235First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> 255<path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> is used in
236is used in this example): 256this example):
237</p> 257</p>
238 258
239<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing"> 259<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
240# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i> 260# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
241</pre> 261</pre>
242 262
243<p> 263<p>
244The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following 264You will see the following file:
245syntax:
246</p>
247
248<pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
249iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
250</pre>
251
252<p> 265</p>
253If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 266
254to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>. 267<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
255If you need to setup your network manually and you're 268# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
256not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 269# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
257link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network 270# please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration
258Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already. 271# in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
272</pre>
273
259</p> 274<p>
260 275To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
276to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
261<p> 277</p>
262So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static 278
263IP (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and 279<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
264gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for 280config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" )
265rp-pppoe usage: 281routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" )
282</pre>
283
266</p> 284<p>
267 285To use DHCP and add specific DHCP options, define <c>config_eth0</c> and
268<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net"> 286<c>dhcp_eth0</c>:
269<comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
270iface_eth0="dhcp"
271<comment># Some network admins require that you use the</comment>
272<comment># hostname and domainname provided by the DHCP server.</comment>
273<comment># In that case, add the following to let dhcpcd use them.</comment>
274<comment># That will override your own hostname and domainname definitions.</comment>
275dhcpcd_eth0="-HD"
276<comment># If you intend on using NTP to keep your machine clock synchronized, use</comment>
277<comment># the -N option to prevent dhcpcd from overwriting your /etc/ntp.conf file</comment>
278dhcpcd_eth0="-N"
279
280<comment>(For static IP)</comment>
281iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
282gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
283
284<comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
285iface_eth0="up"
286</pre>
287
288<p> 287</p>
289If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables, 288
290like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable 289<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
291shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer. 290config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
291dhcp_eth0="nodns nontp nonis"
292</pre>
293
294<p>
295Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available
296options.
297</p>
298
299<p>
300If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
301<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
292</p> 302</p>
293 303
294<p> 304<p>
295Now save the configuration and exit to continue. 305Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
296</p> 306</p>
300<subsection> 310<subsection>
301<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 311<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
302<body> 312<body>
303 313
304<p> 314<p>
305To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the 315To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
306default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 316default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
307the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script. 317the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
308</p> 318</p>
309 319
310<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 320<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
350</pre> 360</pre>
351 361
352<p> 362<p>
353If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name 363If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
354resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your 364resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
355system <c>tux.homenetwork</c>: 365system <c>tux</c>:
356</p> 366</p>
357 367
358<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs"> 368<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
359127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost 369127.0.0.1 localhost tux
360</pre> 370</pre>
361 371
362<p> 372<p>
363Save and exit the editor to continue. 373Save and exit the editor to continue.
364</p> 374</p>
378<note> 388<note>
379pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms. 389pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
380</note> 390</note>
381 391
382<p> 392<p>
383PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. The 393PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
394includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
395using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
384<c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment: 396to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
385</p> 397</p>
386 398
387<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 399<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
388# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i> 400# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
389</pre> 401</pre>
400</body> 412</body>
401</subsection> 413</subsection>
402</section> 414</section>
403<section> 415<section>
404<title>System Information</title> 416<title>System Information</title>
417<subsection>
418<title>Root Password</title>
419<body>
420
421<p>
422First we set the root password by typing:
423</p>
424
425<pre caption="Setting the root password">
426# <i>passwd</i>
427</pre>
428
429<p>
430If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
431<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
432</p>
433
434<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
435# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
436</pre>
437
438</body>
439</subsection>
440<subsection>
441<title>System Information</title>
405<body> 442<body>
406 443
407<p> 444<p>
408Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 445Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
409Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :) 446Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
412<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf"> 449<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
413# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 450# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
414</pre> 451</pre>
415 452
416<p> 453<p>
454When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit.
455</p>
456
457<p>
417As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary 458As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
418configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if 459configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
419you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on 460define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
420your keyboard. 461</p>
462
463<p>
464Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
465Edit it to configure your keyboard.
466</p>
467
468<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
469# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
470</pre>
471
472<p>
473Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong
474<c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
421</p> 475</p>
422 476
423<note> 477<note>
424Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to 478Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
425select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap". 479select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap". <b>PPC</b> uses x86
480keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB keymaps on boot
481have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to set a mac/ppc
482keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
426</note> 483</note>
427 484
428<p> 485<p>
429<b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use 486When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
430ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have 487exit.
431to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
432</p>
433
434<p> 488</p>
435When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then 489
436continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>.
437</p> 490<p>
491Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
492according to your needs.
493</p>
438 494
495<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock">
496# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
497</pre>
498
499<p>
500If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> to
501the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew. Furthermore, Windows
502assumes that your hardware clock uses local time, so if you want to dualboot,
503you should set this variable appropriately, otherwise your clock will go crazy.
504</p>
505
506<p>
507When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and
508exit.
509</p>
510
511<p>
512If you are not installing Gentoo on IBM PPC64 hardware, continue with
513<uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System Tools</uri>.
514</p>
515
516</body>
517</subsection>
518<subsection>
519<title>Configuring the Console</title>
439</body> 520<body>
521
522<note>
523The following section applies to the IBM PPC64 hardware platforms.
524</note>
525
526<p>
527If you are running Gentoo on IBM PPC64 hardware and using a virtual console
528you must uncomment the appropriate line in <path>/etc/inittab</path> for the
529virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
530</p>
531
532<pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab">
533hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0
534hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0
535</pre>
536
537<p>
538You should also take this time to verify that the appropriate console is
539listed in <path>/etc/securetty</path>.
540</p>
541
542<p>
543You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
544System Tools</uri>.
545</p>
546
547</body>
548</subsection>
440</section> 549</section>
441</sections> 550</sections>

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