/[gentoo]/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml
Gentoo

Diff of /xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log | View Patch Patch

Revision 1.21 Revision 1.64
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.21 2004/02/03 10:18:07 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.64 2005/06/11 18:25:09 fox2mike Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10
11<version>2.6</version>
12<date>2005-06-11</date>
13
10<section> 14<section>
11<title>Filesystem Information</title> 15<title>Filesystem Information</title>
12<subsection> 16<subsection>
13<title>What is fstab?</title> 17<title>What is fstab?</title>
14<body> 18<body>
15 19
16<p> 20<p>
17Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in 21Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
18<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions 22<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
19(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted 23(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
20(special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not, 24and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
21etc.). 25them or not, etc.)
22</p> 26</p>
23 27
24</body> 28</body>
25</subsection> 29</subsection>
26<subsection> 30<subsection>
46 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition 50 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
47</li> 51</li>
48<li> 52<li>
49 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it 53 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
50 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions, 54 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
51 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full 55 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
52 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated. 56 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
53</li> 57</li>
54<li> 58<li>
55 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 59 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
56 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 60 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
57</li> 61</li>
58<li> 62<li>
59 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which 63 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
60 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly. 64 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
61 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> 65 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
62 (or <c>0</c> in case a filesystem check isn't necessary). 66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
63</li> 67</li>
64</ul> 68</ul>
65 69
66<p> 70<p>
71The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab
67So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 72file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
68<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 73<path>/etc/fstab</path>:
69</p> 74</p>
70 75
71<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 76<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
72# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 77# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
73</pre> 78</pre>
74 79
75<p> 80<p>
76Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 81Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
77partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a 82partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
78<path>/boot</path> partition, don't copy it verbatim. 83<path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim.
79</p> 84</p>
80 85
81<p> 86<p>
82In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the 87In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
83<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. It shouldn't 88<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
84be mounted automatically (<c>noauto</c>) but does need to be checked. So we 89It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
85would write down:
86</p> 90</p>
87 91
88<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 92<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
89/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto 1 2 93/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
94</pre>
95
96<p>
97Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
98automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
99substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
100manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
90</pre> 101</p>
91 102
92<p> 103<p>
93Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c> 104Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
94option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times 105option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
95aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway): 106aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
96</p> 107</p>
97 108
98<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 109<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
99/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 110/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
100</pre> 111</pre>
101 112
102<p> 113<p>
103If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for 114If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
104<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition): 115<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
105</p> 116</p>
106 117
107<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines"> 118<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
108/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 119/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
109/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 120/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
110/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 121/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
111</pre> 122</pre>
112 123
113<p> 124<p>
115(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other 126(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
116partitions or drives, for those too): 127partitions or drives, for those too):
117</p> 128</p>
118 129
119<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example"> 130<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
120/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 131/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
121/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 132/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
122/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 133/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
123 134
124none /proc proc defaults 0 0 135none /proc proc defaults 0 0
125none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0 136none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
126 137
127/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 138/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
128</pre> 139</pre>
129 140
130<p> 141<p>
133<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD. 144<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
134</p> 145</p>
135 146
136<p> 147<p>
137Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a 148Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
138SPARC-user, you should add the following line to your <path>/etc/fstab</path> 149<b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your
150<path>/etc/fstab</path>
139too: 151too:
140</p> 152</p>
141 153
142<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab"> 154<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
143none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0 155none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
144</pre> 156</pre>
145 157
146<p> 158<p>
147If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
148</p>
149
150<pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
151none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
152</pre>
153
154<p>
155Reread your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 159Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
156</p> 160</p>
157 161
158</body> 162</body>
159</subsection> 163</subsection>
160</section> 164</section>
163<subsection> 167<subsection>
164<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title> 168<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
165<body> 169<body>
166 170
167<p> 171<p>
168One of the choices the user has to make is name his PC. This seems to be quite 172One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
169easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the appropriate 173quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
170name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you choose can 174appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
171be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system 175choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
172<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>. 176<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
173</p> 177</p>
174 178
175<p> 179<p>
176We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname: 180We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
218your Gentoo system permanently. 222your Gentoo system permanently.
219</p> 223</p>
220 224
221<p> 225<p>
222All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 226All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
223a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup 227a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
224networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :) 228networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
225</p> 229</p>
226 230
227<p> 231<p>
228First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> 232First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
232<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing"> 236<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
233# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i> 237# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
234</pre> 238</pre>
235 239
236<p> 240<p>
237The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following 241The first variable you'll find is called <c>config_eth0</c>. As you can probably
238syntax: 242imagine, this variable configured the eth0 network interface. If the interface
239</p> 243needs to automatically obtain an IP address through DHCP, you should set it
240 244like so:
241<pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
242iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
243</pre>
244
245<p> 245</p>
246If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 246
247to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>. 247<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
248If you need to setup your network manually and you're 248config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
249not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 249</pre>
250link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network 250
251Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
252</p> 251<p>
253 252However, if you have to enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
253to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
254<p> 254</p>
255So let us give two examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static IP 255
256(192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and gateway 256<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
257192.168.0.1: 257config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0" )
258routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" )
259</pre>
260
258</p> 261<p>
259 262If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
260<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net"> 263<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
261<comment>(For DHCP:)</comment>
262iface_eth0="dhcp"
263
264<comment>(For static IP:)</comment>
265iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
266gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
267</pre>
268
269<p>
270If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
271like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
272shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer.
273</p> 264</p>
274 265
275<p> 266<p>
276Now save the configuration and exit to continue. 267Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
277</p> 268</p>
281<subsection> 272<subsection>
282<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 273<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
283<body> 274<body>
284 275
285<p> 276<p>
286To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the 277To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
287default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 278default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
288the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script. 279the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
289</p> 280</p>
290 281
291<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 282<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
323# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i> 314# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
324</pre> 315</pre>
325 316
326<pre caption="Filling in the networking information"> 317<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
327127.0.0.1 localhost 318127.0.0.1 localhost
328192.168.0.5 jenny 319192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
329192.168.0.6 benny 320192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
330192.168.0.7 tux 321192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
331</pre> 322</pre>
332 323
333<p> 324<p>
334If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name 325If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
335resolution) a single line is sufficient: 326resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
327system <c>tux</c>:
336</p> 328</p>
337 329
338<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs"> 330<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
339127.0.0.1 localhost tux 331127.0.0.1 localhost tux
340</pre> 332</pre>
341 333
342<p> 334<p>
343Save and exit the editor to continue. 335Save and exit the editor to continue.
344</p> 336</p>
353</subsection> 345</subsection>
354<subsection> 346<subsection>
355<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title> 347<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
356<body> 348<body>
357 349
350<note>
351pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
352</note>
353
358<p> 354<p>
359PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package: 355PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
356includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
357using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
358to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
360</p> 359</p>
361 360
362<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 361<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
363# <i>emerge --usepkg pcmcia-cs</i> 362# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
364</pre> 363</pre>
365 364
366<p> 365<p>
367When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e> 366When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
368runlevel: 367runlevel:
374 373
375</body> 374</body>
376</subsection> 375</subsection>
377</section> 376</section>
378<section> 377<section>
378<title>System Information</title>
379<subsection>
380<title>Root Password</title>
381<body>
382
383<p>
384First we set the root password by typing:
385</p>
386
387<pre caption="Setting the root password">
388# <i>passwd</i>
389</pre>
390
391<p>
392If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
393<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
394</p>
395
396<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
397# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
398</pre>
399
400</body>
401</subsection>
402<subsection>
379<title>System Information</title> 403<title>System Information</title>
380<body> 404<body>
381 405
382<p> 406<p>
383Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 407Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
394you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on 418you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on
395your keyboard. 419your keyboard.
396</p> 420</p>
397 421
398<note> 422<note>
399Users of USB-based SPARC systems and SPARC clones might need to select an i386 423Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
400keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap". 424select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
401</note> 425</note>
402 426
403<p> 427<p>
428<b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use
429ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have
430to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
431</p>
432
433<p>
434If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> to
435the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
436</p>
437
438<p>
404When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then 439When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit.
405continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>. 440</p>
441
406</p> 442<p>
443If you are not installing Gentoo on an IBM POWER5 or JS20 system, continue with
444<uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System Tools</uri>.
445</p>
407 446
447</body>
448</subsection>
449<subsection>
450<title>Configuring the Console</title>
408</body> 451<body>
452
453<note>
454The following section applies to the IBM POWER5 and JS20 hardware platforms.
455</note>
456
457<p>
458If you are running Gentoo in an LPAR or on a JS20 blade, you must uncomment
459the hvc line in /etc/inittab for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
460</p>
461
462<pre caption="Enabling hvc support in /etc/inittab">
463hvc:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -nl /bin/bashlogin 9600 hvc0 vt220
464</pre>
465
466<p>
467You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
468System Tools</uri>.
469</p>
470
471</body>
472</subsection>
409</section> 473</section>
410</sections> 474</sections>

Legend:
Removed from v.1.21  
changed lines
  Added in v.1.64

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.20