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2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
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7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.33 2004/04/15 07:06:36 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.64 2005/06/11 18:25:09 fox2mike Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10
11<version>2.6</version>
12<date>2005-06-11</date>
13
10<section> 14<section>
11<title>Filesystem Information</title> 15<title>Filesystem Information</title>
12<subsection> 16<subsection>
13<title>What is fstab?</title> 17<title>What is fstab?</title>
14<body> 18<body>
15 19
16<p> 20<p>
17Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in 21Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
18<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions 22<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
19(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted 23(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
20(special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not, 24and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
21etc.). 25them or not, etc.)
22</p> 26</p>
23 27
24</body> 28</body>
25</subsection> 29</subsection>
26<subsection> 30<subsection>
46 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition 50 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
47</li> 51</li>
48<li> 52<li>
49 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it 53 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
50 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions, 54 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
51 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full 55 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
52 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated. 56 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
53</li> 57</li>
54<li> 58<li>
55 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 59 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
56 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 60 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
57</li> 61</li>
58<li> 62<li>
59 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which 63 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
60 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly. 64 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
61 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> 65 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
62 (or <c>0</c> in case a filesystem check isn't necessary). 66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
63</li> 67</li>
64</ul> 68</ul>
65 69
66<p> 70<p>
71The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab
67So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 72file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
68<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 73<path>/etc/fstab</path>:
69</p> 74</p>
70 75
71<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 76<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
72# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 77# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
78<path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim. 83<path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim.
79</p> 84</p>
80 85
81<p> 86<p>
82In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the 87In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
83<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. It shouldn't 88<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
84be mounted automatically (<c>noauto</c>) but does need to be checked. So we 89It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
85would write down:
86</p> 90</p>
87 91
88<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 92<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
89/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto 1 2 93/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
94</pre>
95
96<p>
97Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
98automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
99substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
100manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
90</pre> 101</p>
91 102
92<p> 103<p>
93Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c> 104Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
94option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times 105option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
95aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway): 106aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
96</p> 107</p>
97 108
98<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 109<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
99/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 110/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
100</pre> 111</pre>
101 112
102<p> 113<p>
103If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for 114If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
104<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition): 115<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
105</p> 116</p>
106 117
107<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines"> 118<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
108/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 119/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
109/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 120/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
110/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 121/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
111</pre> 122</pre>
112 123
113<p> 124<p>
115(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other 126(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
116partitions or drives, for those too): 127partitions or drives, for those too):
117</p> 128</p>
118 129
119<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example"> 130<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
120/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 131/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
121/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 132/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
122/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 133/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
123 134
124none /proc proc defaults 0 0 135none /proc proc defaults 0 0
125none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0 136none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
126 137
127/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 138/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
128</pre> 139</pre>
129 140
130<p> 141<p>
143<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab"> 154<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
144none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0 155none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
145</pre> 156</pre>
146 157
147<p> 158<p>
148If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
149</p>
150
151<pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
152none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
153</pre>
154
155<p>
156Reread your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 159Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
157</p> 160</p>
158 161
159</body> 162</body>
160</subsection> 163</subsection>
161</section> 164</section>
219your Gentoo system permanently. 222your Gentoo system permanently.
220</p> 223</p>
221 224
222<p> 225<p>
223All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 226All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
224a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup 227a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
225networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :) 228networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
226</p> 229</p>
227 230
228<p> 231<p>
229First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> 232First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
233<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing"> 236<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
234# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i> 237# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
235</pre> 238</pre>
236 239
237<p> 240<p>
238The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following 241The first variable you'll find is called <c>config_eth0</c>. As you can probably
239syntax: 242imagine, this variable configured the eth0 network interface. If the interface
240</p> 243needs to automatically obtain an IP address through DHCP, you should set it
241 244like so:
242<pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
243iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
244</pre>
245
246<p> 245</p>
247If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 246
248to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>. 247<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
249If you need to setup your network manually and you're 248config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
250not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 249</pre>
251link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network 250
252Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
253</p> 251<p>
254 252However, if you have to enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
253to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
255<p> 254</p>
256So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static 255
257IP (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and 256<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
258gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for 257config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0" )
259rp-pppoe usage: 258routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" )
259</pre>
260
260</p> 261<p>
261 262If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
262<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net"> 263<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
263<comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
264iface_eth0="dhcp"
265
266<comment>(For static IP)</comment>
267iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
268gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
269
270<comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
271iface_eth0="up"
272</pre>
273
274<p>
275If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
276like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
277shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer.
278</p> 264</p>
279 265
280<p> 266<p>
281Now save the configuration and exit to continue. 267Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
282</p> 268</p>
286<subsection> 272<subsection>
287<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 273<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
288<body> 274<body>
289 275
290<p> 276<p>
291To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the 277To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
292default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 278default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
293the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script. 279the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
294</p> 280</p>
295 281
296<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 282<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
335192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux 321192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
336</pre> 322</pre>
337 323
338<p> 324<p>
339If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name 325If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
340resolution) a single line is sufficient: 326resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
327system <c>tux</c>:
341</p> 328</p>
342 329
343<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs"> 330<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
344127.0.0.1 localhost 331127.0.0.1 localhost tux
345</pre> 332</pre>
346 333
347<p> 334<p>
348Save and exit the editor to continue. 335Save and exit the editor to continue.
349</p> 336</p>
363<note> 350<note>
364pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms. 351pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
365</note> 352</note>
366 353
367<p> 354<p>
368PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. The 355PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
369<c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary to avoid installing XFree86 at this moment: 356includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
357using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
358to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
370</p> 359</p>
371 360
372<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 361<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
373# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i> 362# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
374</pre> 363</pre>
384 373
385</body> 374</body>
386</subsection> 375</subsection>
387</section> 376</section>
388<section> 377<section>
378<title>System Information</title>
379<subsection>
380<title>Root Password</title>
381<body>
382
383<p>
384First we set the root password by typing:
385</p>
386
387<pre caption="Setting the root password">
388# <i>passwd</i>
389</pre>
390
391<p>
392If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
393<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
394</p>
395
396<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
397# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
398</pre>
399
400</body>
401</subsection>
402<subsection>
389<title>System Information</title> 403<title>System Information</title>
390<body> 404<body>
391 405
392<p> 406<p>
393Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 407Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
415ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have 429ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have
416to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>. 430to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
417</p> 431</p>
418 432
419<p> 433<p>
434If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> to
435the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
436</p>
437
438<p>
420When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then 439When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit.
421continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>. 440</p>
441
422</p> 442<p>
443If you are not installing Gentoo on an IBM POWER5 or JS20 system, continue with
444<uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System Tools</uri>.
445</p>
423 446
447</body>
448</subsection>
449<subsection>
450<title>Configuring the Console</title>
424</body> 451<body>
452
453<note>
454The following section applies to the IBM POWER5 and JS20 hardware platforms.
455</note>
456
457<p>
458If you are running Gentoo in an LPAR or on a JS20 blade, you must uncomment
459the hvc line in /etc/inittab for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
460</p>
461
462<pre caption="Enabling hvc support in /etc/inittab">
463hvc:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -nl /bin/bashlogin 9600 hvc0 vt220
464</pre>
465
466<p>
467You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
468System Tools</uri>.
469</p>
470
471</body>
472</subsection>
425</section> 473</section>
426</sections> 474</sections>

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