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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
1<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
2<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
3 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.64 2005/06/11 18:25:09 fox2mike Exp $ -->
8
4<sections> 9<sections>
5<section>
6<title>Timezone</title>
7<body>
8 10
9<p> 11<version>2.6</version>
10You now need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is 12<date>2005-06-11</date>
11located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a
12symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>:
13</p>
14 13
15<pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
16# <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
17<comment>(Suppose you want to use GTM:)</comment>
18# <i>ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
19</pre>
20
21</body>
22</section>
23<section> 14<section>
24<title>Filesystem Information</title> 15<title>Filesystem Information</title>
25<subsection> 16<subsection>
26<title>What is fstab?</title> 17<title>What is fstab?</title>
27<body> 18<body>
28 19
29<p> 20<p>
30Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in 21Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
31<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions 22<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
32(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted 23(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
33(special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not, 24and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
34etc.). 25them or not, etc.)
35</p> 26</p>
36 27
37</body> 28</body>
38</subsection> 29</subsection>
39<subsection> 30<subsection>
40<title>Creating /etc/fstab</title> 31<title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
41<body> 32<body>
42 33
43<p> 34<p>
44<path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntaxis. Every line consists of six 35<path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
45fields, seperated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has 36fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
46its own meaning: 37its own meaning:
47</p> 38</p>
48 39
49<ul> 40<ul>
50<li> 41<li>
59 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition 50 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
60</li> 51</li>
61<li> 52<li>
62 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it 53 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
63 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions, 54 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
64 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full 55 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
65 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-seperated. 56 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
66</li> 57</li>
67<li> 58<li>
68 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 59 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
69 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 60 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
70</li> 61</li>
71<li> 62<li>
72 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> the order in which filesystems should 63 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
73 be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly. The root filesystem 64 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
74 should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> (or <c>0</c> in case 65 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
75 a filesystem check isn't necessary). 66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
76</li> 67</li>
77</ul> 68</ul>
78 69
79<p> 70<p>
71The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab
80So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 72file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
81<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 73<path>/etc/fstab</path>:
82</p> 74</p>
83 75
84<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 76<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
85# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 77# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
86</pre> 78</pre>
87 79
88<p> 80<p>
89Lets take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 81Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
90partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a 82partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
91<path>/boot</path> partition, don't copy it verbatim. 83<path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim.
92</p> 84</p>
93 85
94<p> 86<p>
95In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the 87In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
96<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. It shouldn't 88<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
97be mounted automatically (<c>noauto</c>) but does need to be checked. So we 89It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
98would write down:
99</p> 90</p>
100 91
101<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 92<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
102/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto 1 2 93/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
94</pre>
95
96<p>
97Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
98automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
99substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
100manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
103</pre> 101</p>
104 102
105<p> 103<p>
106Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c> 104Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
107option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times 105option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
108aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway): 106aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
109</p> 107</p>
110 108
111<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 109<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
112/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 110/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
113</pre> 111</pre>
114 112
115<p> 113<p>
116If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for 114If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
117<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition): 115<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
118</p> 116</p>
119 117
120<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines"> 118<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
121/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 119/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
122/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 120/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
123/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 121/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
124</pre> 122</pre>
125 123
126<p> 124<p>
127To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c> 125To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
128(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and ofcourse, if you have other 126(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
129partitions or drives, for those too): 127partitions or drives, for those too):
130</p> 128</p>
131 129
132<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example"> 130<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
133/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 131/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
134/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 132/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
135/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 133/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
136 134
137none /proc proc defaults 0 0 135none /proc proc defaults 0 0
138none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0 136none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
139 137
140/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 138/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
141</pre> 139</pre>
142 140
143<p> 141<p>
146<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD. 144<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
147</p> 145</p>
148 146
149<p> 147<p>
150Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a 148Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
151SPARC-user, you should add the following line to your <path>/etc/fstab</path> 149<b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your
150<path>/etc/fstab</path>
152too: 151too:
153</p> 152</p>
154 153
155<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab"> 154<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
156none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0 155none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
157</pre> 156</pre>
158 157
159<p> 158<p>
160Reread your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 159Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
161</p> 160</p>
162 161
163</body> 162</body>
164</subsection> 163</subsection>
165</section> 164</section>
168<subsection> 167<subsection>
169<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title> 168<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
170<body> 169<body>
171 170
172<p> 171<p>
173One of the choices the user has to make is name his PC. This seems to be quite 172One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
174easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the appropriate 173quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
175name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you choose can 174appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
176be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system 175choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
177<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>. 176<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
178</p> 177</p>
179 178
180<p> 179<p>
181We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname: 180We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
198one), you need to define that one too: 197one), you need to define that one too:
199</p> 198</p>
200 199
201<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname"> 200<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
202# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i> 201# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
202</pre>
203
204<p>
205Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
206</p>
207
208<pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel">
209# <i>rc-update add domainname default</i>
203</pre> 210</pre>
204 211
205</body> 212</body>
206</subsection> 213</subsection>
207<subsection> 214<subsection>
215your Gentoo system permanently. 222your Gentoo system permanently.
216</p> 223</p>
217 224
218<p> 225<p>
219All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 226All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
220a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup 227a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
221networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :) 228networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
222</p> 229</p>
223 230
224<p> 231<p>
225First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> 232First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
229<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing"> 236<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
230# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i> 237# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
231</pre> 238</pre>
232 239
233<p> 240<p>
234The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following 241The first variable you'll find is called <c>config_eth0</c>. As you can probably
235syntax: 242imagine, this variable configured the eth0 network interface. If the interface
236</p> 243needs to automatically obtain an IP address through DHCP, you should set it
237 244like so:
238<pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
239iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
240</pre>
241
242<p> 245</p>
243If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 246
244to <c>dhcp</c>. However, if you need to setup your network manually and you're 247<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
245not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 248config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
246link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network 249</pre>
247Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already. 250
248</p> 251<p>
249 252However, if you have to enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
253to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
250<p> 254</p>
251So lets give two examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static IP 255
252(192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and gateway 256<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
253192.168.0.1: 257config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0" )
258routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" )
259</pre>
260
254</p> 261<p>
255 262If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
256<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net"> 263<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
257<comment>(For DHCP:)</comment>
258iface_eth0="dhcp"
259
260<comment>(For static IP:)</comment>
261iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
262gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
263</pre>
264
265<p>
266If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
267like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
268shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer.
269</p> 264</p>
270 265
271<p> 266<p>
272Now save the configuration and exit to continue. 267Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
273</p> 268</p>
277<subsection> 272<subsection>
278<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 273<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
279<body> 274<body>
280 275
281<p> 276<p>
282To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the 277To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
283default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 278default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
284the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script. 279the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
285</p> 280</p>
286 281
287<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 282<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
309<p> 304<p>
310You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in 305You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
311<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses 306<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
312for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your 307for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
313internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5), 308internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
314<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (this system) you would 309<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would
315open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values: 310open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
316</p> 311</p>
317 312
318<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts"> 313<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
319# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i> 314# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
320</pre> 315</pre>
321 316
322<pre caption="Filling in the networking information"> 317<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
323127.0.0.1 localhost tux 318127.0.0.1 localhost
324192.168.0.5 jenny 319192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
325192.168.0.56 benny 320192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
321192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
326</pre> 322</pre>
327 323
328<p> 324<p>
329If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name 325If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
330resolution) a single line is sufficient: 326resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
327system <c>tux</c>:
331</p> 328</p>
332 329
333<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs"> 330<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
334127.0.0.1 localhost tux 331127.0.0.1 localhost tux
335</pre> 332</pre>
336 333
337<p> 334<p>
338Save and exit the editor to continue. 335Save and exit the editor to continue.
339</p> 336</p>
340 337
341<p> 338<p>
342If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri 339If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
343link="#doc_chap4">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the 340link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
344following topic on PCMCIA. 341following topic on PCMCIA.
345</p> 342</p>
346 343
347</body> 344</body>
348</subsection> 345</subsection>
349<subsection> 346<subsection>
350<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title> 347<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
351<body> 348<body>
352 349
350<note>
351pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
352</note>
353
353<p> 354<p>
354PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package: 355PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
356includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
357using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
358to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
355</p> 359</p>
356 360
357<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 361<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
358# <i>emerge -k pcmcia-cs</i> 362# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
359</pre> 363</pre>
360 364
361<p> 365<p>
362When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>boot</e> 366When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
363runlevel: 367runlevel:
364</p> 368</p>
365 369
366<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel"> 370<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
367# <i>rc-update add pcmcia boot</i> 371# <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
368</pre> 372</pre>
369 373
370</body> 374</body>
371</subsection> 375</subsection>
372</section> 376</section>
373<section> 377<section>
374<title>System Information</title> 378<title>System Information</title>
379<subsection>
380<title>Root Password</title>
381<body>
382
383<p>
384First we set the root password by typing:
385</p>
386
387<pre caption="Setting the root password">
388# <i>passwd</i>
389</pre>
390
391<p>
392If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
393<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
394</p>
395
396<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
397# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
398</pre>
399
400</body>
401</subsection>
402<subsection>
403<title>System Information</title>
375<body> 404<body>
376 405
377<p> 406<p>
378Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 407Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
379Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :) 408Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
383# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 412# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
384</pre> 413</pre>
385 414
386<p> 415<p>
387As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary 416As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
388configuration variables. When you're finished configuring 417configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if
389<path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit to continue. 418you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on
419your keyboard.
420</p>
421
422<note>
423Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
424select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
425</note>
426
390</p> 427<p>
428<b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use
429ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have
430to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
431</p>
391 432
433<p>
434If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> to
435the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
436</p>
437
438<p>
439When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit.
440</p>
441
442<p>
443If you are not installing Gentoo on an IBM POWER5 or JS20 system, continue with
444<uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System Tools</uri>.
445</p>
446
447</body>
448</subsection>
449<subsection>
450<title>Configuring the Console</title>
392</body> 451<body>
452
453<note>
454The following section applies to the IBM POWER5 and JS20 hardware platforms.
455</note>
456
457<p>
458If you are running Gentoo in an LPAR or on a JS20 blade, you must uncomment
459the hvc line in /etc/inittab for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
460</p>
461
462<pre caption="Enabling hvc support in /etc/inittab">
463hvc:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -nl /bin/bashlogin 9600 hvc0 vt220
464</pre>
465
466<p>
467You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
468System Tools</uri>.
469</p>
470
471</body>
472</subsection>
393</section> 473</section>
394</sections> 474</sections>

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