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2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
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6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.40 2004/08/02 19:29:14 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.64 2005/06/11 18:25:09 fox2mike Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10
11<version>2.6</version>
12<date>2005-06-11</date>
13
10<section> 14<section>
11<title>Filesystem Information</title> 15<title>Filesystem Information</title>
12<subsection> 16<subsection>
13<title>What is fstab?</title> 17<title>What is fstab?</title>
14<body> 18<body>
15 19
16<p> 20<p>
17Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in 21Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
18<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions 22<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
19(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted 23(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
20(special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not, 24and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
21etc.). 25them or not, etc.)
22</p> 26</p>
23 27
24</body> 28</body>
25</subsection> 29</subsection>
26<subsection> 30<subsection>
46 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition 50 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
47</li> 51</li>
48<li> 52<li>
49 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it 53 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
50 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions, 54 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
51 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full 55 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
52 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated. 56 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
53</li> 57</li>
54<li> 58<li>
55 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 59 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
56 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 60 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
57</li> 61</li>
58<li> 62<li>
59 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which 63 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
60 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly. 64 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
61 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> 65 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
62 (or <c>0</c> in case a filesystem check isn't necessary). 66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
63</li> 67</li>
64</ul> 68</ul>
65 69
66<p> 70<p>
71The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab
67So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 72file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
68<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 73<path>/etc/fstab</path>:
69</p> 74</p>
70 75
71<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 76<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
72# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 77# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
109If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for 114If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
110<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition): 115<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
111</p> 116</p>
112 117
113<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines"> 118<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
114/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 119/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
115/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 120/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
116/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 121/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
117</pre> 122</pre>
118 123
119<p> 124<p>
121(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other 126(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
122partitions or drives, for those too): 127partitions or drives, for those too):
123</p> 128</p>
124 129
125<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example"> 130<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
126/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 131/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
127/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 132/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
128/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 133/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
129 134
130none /proc proc defaults 0 0 135none /proc proc defaults 0 0
131none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0 136none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
132 137
133/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 138/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
134</pre> 139</pre>
135 140
136<p> 141<p>
146too: 151too:
147</p> 152</p>
148 153
149<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab"> 154<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
150none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0 155none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
151</pre>
152
153<p>
154If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
155</p>
156
157<pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
158none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
159</pre> 156</pre>
160 157
161<p> 158<p>
162Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 159Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
163</p> 160</p>
225your Gentoo system permanently. 222your Gentoo system permanently.
226</p> 223</p>
227 224
228<p> 225<p>
229All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 226All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
230a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup 227a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
231networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :) 228networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
232</p> 229</p>
233 230
234<p> 231<p>
235First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> 232First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
239<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing"> 236<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
240# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i> 237# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
241</pre> 238</pre>
242 239
243<p> 240<p>
244The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following 241The first variable you'll find is called <c>config_eth0</c>. As you can probably
245syntax: 242imagine, this variable configured the eth0 network interface. If the interface
246</p> 243needs to automatically obtain an IP address through DHCP, you should set it
247 244like so:
248<pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
249iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
250</pre>
251
252<p> 245</p>
253If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 246
254to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>. 247<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
255If you need to setup your network manually and you're 248config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
256not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 249</pre>
257link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network 250
258Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
259</p> 251<p>
260 252However, if you have to enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
253to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
261<p> 254</p>
262So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static 255
263IP (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and 256<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
264gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for 257config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0" )
265rp-pppoe usage: 258routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" )
259</pre>
260
266</p> 261<p>
267 262If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
268<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net"> 263<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
269<comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
270iface_eth0="dhcp"
271<comment># Some network admins require that you use the</comment>
272<comment># hostname and domainname provided by the DHCP server.</comment>
273<comment># In that case, add the following to let dhcpcd use them.</comment>
274<comment># That will override your own hostname and domainname definitions.</comment>
275dhcpcd_eth0="-HD"
276<comment># If you intend on using NTP to keep your machine clock synchronized, use</comment>
277<comment># the -N option to prevent dhcpcd from overwriting your /etc/ntp.conf file</comment>
278dhcpcd_eth0="-N"
279
280<comment>(For static IP)</comment>
281iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
282gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
283
284<comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
285iface_eth0="up"
286</pre>
287
288<p>
289If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
290like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
291shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer.
292</p> 264</p>
293 265
294<p> 266<p>
295Now save the configuration and exit to continue. 267Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
296</p> 268</p>
300<subsection> 272<subsection>
301<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 273<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
302<body> 274<body>
303 275
304<p> 276<p>
305To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the 277To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
306default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 278default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
307the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script. 279the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
308</p> 280</p>
309 281
310<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 282<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
350</pre> 322</pre>
351 323
352<p> 324<p>
353If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name 325If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
354resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your 326resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
355system <c>tux.homenetwork</c>: 327system <c>tux</c>:
356</p> 328</p>
357 329
358<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs"> 330<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
359127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost 331127.0.0.1 localhost tux
360</pre> 332</pre>
361 333
362<p> 334<p>
363Save and exit the editor to continue. 335Save and exit the editor to continue.
364</p> 336</p>
378<note> 350<note>
379pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms. 351pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
380</note> 352</note>
381 353
382<p> 354<p>
383PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. The 355PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
356includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
357using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
384<c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment: 358to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
385</p> 359</p>
386 360
387<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 361<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
388# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i> 362# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
389</pre> 363</pre>
399 373
400</body> 374</body>
401</subsection> 375</subsection>
402</section> 376</section>
403<section> 377<section>
378<title>System Information</title>
379<subsection>
380<title>Root Password</title>
381<body>
382
383<p>
384First we set the root password by typing:
385</p>
386
387<pre caption="Setting the root password">
388# <i>passwd</i>
389</pre>
390
391<p>
392If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
393<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
394</p>
395
396<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
397# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
398</pre>
399
400</body>
401</subsection>
402<subsection>
404<title>System Information</title> 403<title>System Information</title>
405<body> 404<body>
406 405
407<p> 406<p>
408Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 407Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
430ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have 429ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have
431to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>. 430to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
432</p> 431</p>
433 432
434<p> 433<p>
434If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> to
435the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
436</p>
437
438<p>
435When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then 439When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit.
436continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>. 440</p>
441
437</p> 442<p>
443If you are not installing Gentoo on an IBM POWER5 or JS20 system, continue with
444<uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System Tools</uri>.
445</p>
438 446
447</body>
448</subsection>
449<subsection>
450<title>Configuring the Console</title>
439</body> 451<body>
452
453<note>
454The following section applies to the IBM POWER5 and JS20 hardware platforms.
455</note>
456
457<p>
458If you are running Gentoo in an LPAR or on a JS20 blade, you must uncomment
459the hvc line in /etc/inittab for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
460</p>
461
462<pre caption="Enabling hvc support in /etc/inittab">
463hvc:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -nl /bin/bashlogin 9600 hvc0 vt220
464</pre>
465
466<p>
467You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
468System Tools</uri>.
469</p>
470
471</body>
472</subsection>
440</section> 473</section>
441</sections> 474</sections>

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