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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.67 2005/06/24 18:47:21 fox2mike Exp $ -->
8
9<sections>
10
11<version>2.9</version>
12<date>2005-06-24</date>
13
1<section> 14<section>
2<subsection>
3<title>Timezone</title>
4<body>
5
6<p>
7<path>/etc/localtime</path>.
8</p>
9
10</body>
11</subsection>
12<subsection>
13<title>Filesystem Information</title> 15<title>Filesystem Information</title>
16<subsection>
17<title>What is fstab?</title>
18<body>
19
20<p>
21Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
22<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
23(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
24and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
25them or not, etc.)
26</p>
27
14<body> 28</body>
29</subsection>
30<subsection>
31<title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
32<body>
15 33
34<p>
35<path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
36fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
37its own meaning:
16<p> 38</p>
39
40<ul>
41<li>
42 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
43 file)
44</li>
45<li>
46 The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be
47 mounted
48</li>
49<li>
50 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
51</li>
52<li>
53 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
54 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
55 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
56 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
57</li>
58<li>
59 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
60 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
61</li>
62<li>
63 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
64 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
65 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
67</li>
68</ul>
69
70<p>
71The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab
72file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
73<path>/etc/fstab</path>:
74</p>
75
76<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
77# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
78</pre>
79
80<p>
81Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
82partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
83<path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim.
84</p>
85
86<p>
87In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
88<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
89It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
90</p>
91
92<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
93/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
94</pre>
95
96<p>
97Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
98automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
99substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
100manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
101</p>
102
103<p>
104Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
105option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
106aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
107</p>
108
109<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
110/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
111</pre>
112
113<p>
114If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
115<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
116</p>
117
118<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
119/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
120/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
121/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
122</pre>
123
124<p>
125To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
126(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
127partitions or drives, for those too):
128</p>
129
130<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
131/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
132/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
133/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
134
135none /proc proc defaults 0 0
136none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
137
138/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
139</pre>
140
141<p>
142<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
143removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
144<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
145</p>
146
147<p>
148Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
149<b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your
17<path>/etc/fstab</path> 150<path>/etc/fstab</path>
151too:
152</p>
153
154<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
155none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
156</pre>
157
18</p> 158<p>
159Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
160</p>
19 161
20</body> 162</body>
21</subsection>
22<subsection> 163</subsection>
164</section>
165<section>
23<title>Networking Information</title> 166<title>Networking Information</title>
24<body>
25
26<p>
27<path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>, <c>rc-update add net.eth0</c>,
28PCMCIA-information etc.
29</p>
30
31</body>
32</subsection> 167<subsection>
168<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
169<body>
170
171<p>
172One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
173quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
174appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
175choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
176<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
177</p>
178
179<p>
180We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
181</p>
182
183<pre caption="Setting the hostname">
184# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
185
186<comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your hostname)</comment>
187HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>"
188</pre>
189
190<p>
191Second we set the domainname:
192</p>
193
194<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
195# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i>
196
197<comment>(Set the DNSDOMAIN variable to your domain name)</comment>
198DNSDOMAIN="<i>homenetwork</i>"
199</pre>
200
201<p>
202If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
203one), you need to define that one too:
204</p>
205
206<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
207# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i>
208
209<comment>(Set the NISDOMAIN variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
210NISDOMAIN="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
211</pre>
212
213<p>
214Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
215</p>
216
217<pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel">
218# <i>rc-update add domainname default</i>
219</pre>
220
221</body>
33<subsection> 222</subsection>
223<subsection>
224<title>Configuring your Network</title>
225<body>
226
227<p>
228Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
229that the networking you set up in the beginning of the Gentoo installation was
230just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
231your Gentoo system permanently.
232</p>
233
234<note>
235More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
236bonding, bridging, 802.11q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
237link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
238</note>
239
240<p>
241All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
242a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
243networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
244</p>
245
246<p>
247First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
248is used in this example):
249</p>
250
251<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
252# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
253</pre>
254
255<p>
256The first variable you'll find is called <c>config_eth0</c>. As you can probably
257imagine, this variable configured the eth0 network interface. If the interface
258needs to automatically obtain an IP address through DHCP, you should set it
259like so:
260</p>
261
262<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
263config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
264</pre>
265
266<p>
267However, if you have to enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
268to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
269</p>
270
271<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
272config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0" )
273routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" )
274</pre>
275
276<p>
277If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
278<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
279</p>
280
281<p>
282Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
283</p>
284
285</body>
286</subsection>
287<subsection>
288<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
289<body>
290
291<p>
292To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
293default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
294the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
295</p>
296
297<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
298# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
299</pre>
300
301<p>
302If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
303<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
304use <c>ln</c> to do this:
305</p>
306
307<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
308# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
309# <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
310# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
311</pre>
312
313</body>
314</subsection>
315<subsection>
316<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
317<body>
318
319<p>
320You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
321<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
322for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
323internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
324<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would
325open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
326</p>
327
328<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
329# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
330</pre>
331
332<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
333127.0.0.1 localhost
334192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
335192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
336192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
337</pre>
338
339<p>
340If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
341resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
342system <c>tux</c>:
343</p>
344
345<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
346127.0.0.1 localhost tux
347</pre>
348
349<p>
350Save and exit the editor to continue.
351</p>
352
353<p>
354If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
355link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
356following topic on PCMCIA.
357</p>
358
359</body>
360</subsection>
361<subsection>
362<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
363<body>
364
365<note>
366pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
367</note>
368
369<p>
370PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
371includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
372using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
373to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
374</p>
375
376<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
377# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
378</pre>
379
380<p>
381When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
382runlevel:
383</p>
384
385<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
386# <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
387</pre>
388
389</body>
390</subsection>
391</section>
392<section>
34<title>System Information</title> 393<title>System Information</title>
394<subsection>
395<title>Root Password</title>
396<body>
397
398<p>
399First we set the root password by typing:
400</p>
401
402<pre caption="Setting the root password">
403# <i>passwd</i>
404</pre>
405
406<p>
407If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
408<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
409</p>
410
411<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
412# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
413</pre>
414
35<body> 415</body>
416</subsection>
417<subsection>
418<title>System Information</title>
419<body>
36 420
421<p>
422Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
423Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
37<p> 424</p>
38<path>/etc/rc.conf</path> 425
426<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
427# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
428</pre>
429
430<p>
431When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit.
432</p>
433
434<p>
435As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
436configuration variables. Among other settings, you can configure your console
437fonts, your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
438</p>
439
440<p>
441Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
442Edit it to configure your keyboard.
443</p>
444
445<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
446# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
447</pre>
448
449<p>
450Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong
451<c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
452</p>
453
454<note>
455Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
456select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
457</note>
458
459<p>
460<b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use
461ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have
462to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
463</p>
464
465<p>
466When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
467exit.
468</p>
469
470<p>
471Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
472according to your needs.
473</p>
474
475<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock">
476# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
477</pre>
478
479<p>
480If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> to
481the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
482</p>
483
484<p>
485When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and
486exit.
487</p>
488
489<p>
490If you are not installing Gentoo on an IBM POWER5 or JS20 system, continue with
491<uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System Tools</uri>.
492</p>
493
494</body>
495</subsection>
496<subsection>
497<title>Configuring the Console</title>
498<body>
499
500<note>
501The following section applies to the IBM POWER5 and JS20 hardware platforms.
502</note>
503
504<p>
505If you are running Gentoo in an LPAR or on a JS20 blade, you must uncomment
506the hvc line in /etc/inittab for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
507</p>
508
509<pre caption="Enabling hvc support in /etc/inittab">
510hvc:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -nl /bin/bashlogin 9600 hvc0 vt220
511</pre>
512
513<p>
514You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
515System Tools</uri>.
39</p> 516</p>
40 517
41</body> 518</body>
42</subsection> 519</subsection>
43</section> 520</section>
521</sections>

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