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2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.32 2004/03/29 19:11:27 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.67 2005/06/24 18:47:21 fox2mike Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10
11<version>2.9</version>
12<date>2005-06-24</date>
13
10<section> 14<section>
11<title>Filesystem Information</title> 15<title>Filesystem Information</title>
12<subsection> 16<subsection>
13<title>What is fstab?</title> 17<title>What is fstab?</title>
14<body> 18<body>
15 19
16<p> 20<p>
17Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in 21Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
18<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions 22<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
19(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted 23(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
20(special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not, 24and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
21etc.). 25them or not, etc.)
22</p> 26</p>
23 27
24</body> 28</body>
25</subsection> 29</subsection>
26<subsection> 30<subsection>
46 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition 50 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
47</li> 51</li>
48<li> 52<li>
49 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it 53 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
50 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions, 54 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
51 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full 55 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
52 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated. 56 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
53</li> 57</li>
54<li> 58<li>
55 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 59 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
56 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 60 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
57</li> 61</li>
58<li> 62<li>
59 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which 63 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
60 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly. 64 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
61 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> 65 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
62 (or <c>0</c> in case a filesystem check isn't necessary). 66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
63</li> 67</li>
64</ul> 68</ul>
65 69
66<p> 70<p>
71The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab
67So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 72file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
68<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 73<path>/etc/fstab</path>:
69</p> 74</p>
70 75
71<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 76<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
72# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 77# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
78<path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim. 83<path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim.
79</p> 84</p>
80 85
81<p> 86<p>
82In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the 87In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
83<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. It shouldn't 88<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
84be mounted automatically (<c>noauto</c>) but does need to be checked. So we 89It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
85would write down:
86</p> 90</p>
87 91
88<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 92<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
89/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto 1 2 93/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
94</pre>
95
96<p>
97Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
98automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
99substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
100manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
90</pre> 101</p>
91 102
92<p> 103<p>
93Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c> 104Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
94option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times 105option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
95aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway): 106aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
96</p> 107</p>
97 108
98<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 109<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
99/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 110/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
100</pre> 111</pre>
101 112
102<p> 113<p>
103If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for 114If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
104<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition): 115<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
105</p> 116</p>
106 117
107<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines"> 118<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
108/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 119/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
109/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 120/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
110/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 121/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
111</pre> 122</pre>
112 123
113<p> 124<p>
115(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other 126(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
116partitions or drives, for those too): 127partitions or drives, for those too):
117</p> 128</p>
118 129
119<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example"> 130<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
120/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 131/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
121/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 132/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
122/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 133/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
123 134
124none /proc proc defaults 0 0 135none /proc proc defaults 0 0
125none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0 136none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
126 137
127/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 138/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
128</pre> 139</pre>
129 140
130<p> 141<p>
143<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab"> 154<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
144none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0 155none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
145</pre> 156</pre>
146 157
147<p> 158<p>
148If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
149</p>
150
151<pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
152none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
153</pre>
154
155<p>
156Reread your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 159Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
157</p> 160</p>
158 161
159</body> 162</body>
160</subsection> 163</subsection>
161</section> 164</section>
164<subsection> 167<subsection>
165<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title> 168<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
166<body> 169<body>
167 170
168<p> 171<p>
169One of the choices the user has to make is name his PC. This seems to be quite 172One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
170easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the appropriate 173quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
171name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you choose can 174appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
172be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system 175choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
173<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>. 176<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
174</p> 177</p>
175 178
176<p> 179<p>
177We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname: 180We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
178</p> 181</p>
179 182
180<pre caption="Setting the hostname"> 183<pre caption="Setting the hostname">
181# <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i> 184# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
185
186<comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your hostname)</comment>
187HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>"
182</pre> 188</pre>
183 189
184<p> 190<p>
185Second we set the domainname: 191Second we set the domainname:
186</p> 192</p>
187 193
188<pre caption="Setting the domainname"> 194<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
189# <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i> 195# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i>
196
197<comment>(Set the DNSDOMAIN variable to your domain name)</comment>
198DNSDOMAIN="<i>homenetwork</i>"
190</pre> 199</pre>
191 200
192<p> 201<p>
193If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have 202If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
194one), you need to define that one too: 203one), you need to define that one too:
195</p> 204</p>
196 205
197<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname"> 206<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
198# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i> 207# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i>
208
209<comment>(Set the NISDOMAIN variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
210NISDOMAIN="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
199</pre> 211</pre>
200 212
201<p> 213<p>
202Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel: 214Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
203</p> 215</p>
212<title>Configuring your Network</title> 224<title>Configuring your Network</title>
213<body> 225<body>
214 226
215<p> 227<p>
216Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember 228Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
217that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was 229that the networking you set up in the beginning of the Gentoo installation was
218just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for 230just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
219your Gentoo system permanently. 231your Gentoo system permanently.
220</p> 232</p>
221 233
234<note>
235More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
236bonding, bridging, 802.11q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
237link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
238</note>
239
222<p> 240<p>
223All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 241All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
224a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup 242a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
225networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :) 243networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
226</p> 244</p>
227 245
228<p> 246<p>
229First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> 247First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
233<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing"> 251<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
234# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i> 252# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
235</pre> 253</pre>
236 254
237<p> 255<p>
238The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following 256The first variable you'll find is called <c>config_eth0</c>. As you can probably
239syntax: 257imagine, this variable configured the eth0 network interface. If the interface
240</p> 258needs to automatically obtain an IP address through DHCP, you should set it
241 259like so:
242<pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
243iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
244</pre>
245
246<p> 260</p>
247If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 261
248to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>. 262<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
249If you need to setup your network manually and you're 263config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
250not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 264</pre>
251link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network 265
252Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
253</p> 266<p>
254 267However, if you have to enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
268to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
255<p> 269</p>
256So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static 270
257IP (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and 271<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
258gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for 272config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0" )
259rp-pppoe usage: 273routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" )
274</pre>
275
260</p> 276<p>
261 277If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
262<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net"> 278<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
263<comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
264iface_eth0="dhcp"
265
266<comment>(For static IP)</comment>
267iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
268gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
269
270<comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
271iface_eth0="up"
272</pre>
273
274<p>
275If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
276like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
277shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer.
278</p> 279</p>
279 280
280<p> 281<p>
281Now save the configuration and exit to continue. 282Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
282</p> 283</p>
286<subsection> 287<subsection>
287<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 288<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
288<body> 289<body>
289 290
290<p> 291<p>
291To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the 292To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
292default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 293default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
293the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script. 294the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
294</p> 295</p>
295 296
296<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 297<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
335192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux 336192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
336</pre> 337</pre>
337 338
338<p> 339<p>
339If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name 340If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
340resolution) a single line is sufficient: 341resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
342system <c>tux</c>:
341</p> 343</p>
342 344
343<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs"> 345<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
344127.0.0.1 localhost 346127.0.0.1 localhost tux
345</pre> 347</pre>
346 348
347<p> 349<p>
348Save and exit the editor to continue. 350Save and exit the editor to continue.
349</p> 351</p>
363<note> 365<note>
364pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms. 366pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
365</note> 367</note>
366 368
367<p> 369<p>
368PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. The 370PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
369<c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary to avoid installing XFree86 at this moment: 371includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
372using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
373to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
370</p> 374</p>
371 375
372<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 376<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
373# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i> 377# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
374</pre> 378</pre>
385</body> 389</body>
386</subsection> 390</subsection>
387</section> 391</section>
388<section> 392<section>
389<title>System Information</title> 393<title>System Information</title>
394<subsection>
395<title>Root Password</title>
396<body>
397
398<p>
399First we set the root password by typing:
400</p>
401
402<pre caption="Setting the root password">
403# <i>passwd</i>
404</pre>
405
406<p>
407If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
408<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
409</p>
410
411<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
412# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
413</pre>
414
415</body>
416</subsection>
417<subsection>
418<title>System Information</title>
390<body> 419<body>
391 420
392<p> 421<p>
393Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 422Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
394Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :) 423Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
397<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf"> 426<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
398# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 427# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
399</pre> 428</pre>
400 429
401<p> 430<p>
431When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit.
432</p>
433
434<p>
402As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary 435As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
403configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if 436configuration variables. Among other settings, you can configure your console
404you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on 437fonts, your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
405your keyboard. 438</p>
439
440<p>
441Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
442Edit it to configure your keyboard.
443</p>
444
445<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
446# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
447</pre>
448
449<p>
450Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong
451<c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
406</p> 452</p>
407 453
408<note> 454<note>
409Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to 455Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
410select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap". 456select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
411</note> 457</note>
412 458
413<p> 459<p>
414<b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use 460<b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use
415ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have 461ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have
416to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>. 462to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
417</p>
418
419<p> 463</p>
420When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then 464
421continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>.
422</p> 465<p>
466When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
467exit.
468</p>
423 469
470<p>
471Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
472according to your needs.
473</p>
474
475<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock">
476# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
477</pre>
478
479<p>
480If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> to
481the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
482</p>
483
484<p>
485When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and
486exit.
487</p>
488
489<p>
490If you are not installing Gentoo on an IBM POWER5 or JS20 system, continue with
491<uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System Tools</uri>.
492</p>
493
494</body>
495</subsection>
496<subsection>
497<title>Configuring the Console</title>
424</body> 498<body>
499
500<note>
501The following section applies to the IBM POWER5 and JS20 hardware platforms.
502</note>
503
504<p>
505If you are running Gentoo in an LPAR or on a JS20 blade, you must uncomment
506the hvc line in /etc/inittab for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
507</p>
508
509<pre caption="Enabling hvc support in /etc/inittab">
510hvc:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -nl /bin/bashlogin 9600 hvc0 vt220
511</pre>
512
513<p>
514You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
515System Tools</uri>.
516</p>
517
518</body>
519</subsection>
425</section> 520</section>
426</sections> 521</sections>

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