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3 3
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7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.43 2004/08/06 13:10:11 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.67 2005/06/24 18:47:21 fox2mike Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10
11<version>2.9</version>
12<date>2005-06-24</date>
13
10<section> 14<section>
11<title>Filesystem Information</title> 15<title>Filesystem Information</title>
12<subsection> 16<subsection>
13<title>What is fstab?</title> 17<title>What is fstab?</title>
14<body> 18<body>
15 19
16<p> 20<p>
17Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in 21Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
18<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions 22<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
19(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted 23(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
20(special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not, 24and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
21etc.). 25them or not, etc.)
22</p> 26</p>
23 27
24</body> 28</body>
25</subsection> 29</subsection>
26<subsection> 30<subsection>
46 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition 50 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
47</li> 51</li>
48<li> 52<li>
49 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it 53 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
50 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions, 54 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
51 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full 55 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
52 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated. 56 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
53</li> 57</li>
54<li> 58<li>
55 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 59 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
56 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 60 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
57</li> 61</li>
58<li> 62<li>
59 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which 63 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
60 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly. 64 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
61 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> 65 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
62 (or <c>0</c> in case a filesystem check isn't necessary). 66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
63</li> 67</li>
64</ul> 68</ul>
65 69
66<p> 70<p>
71The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab
67So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 72file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
68<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 73<path>/etc/fstab</path>:
69</p> 74</p>
70 75
71<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 76<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
72# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 77# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
121(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other 126(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
122partitions or drives, for those too): 127partitions or drives, for those too):
123</p> 128</p>
124 129
125<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example"> 130<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
126/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 131/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
127/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 132/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
128/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 133/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
129 134
130none /proc proc defaults 0 0 135none /proc proc defaults 0 0
131none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0 136none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
132 137
133/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 138/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
134</pre> 139</pre>
135 140
136<p> 141<p>
146too: 151too:
147</p> 152</p>
148 153
149<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab"> 154<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
150none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0 155none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
151</pre>
152
153<p>
154If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
155</p>
156
157<pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
158none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
159</pre> 156</pre>
160 157
161<p> 158<p>
162Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 159Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
163</p> 160</p>
182<p> 179<p>
183We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname: 180We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
184</p> 181</p>
185 182
186<pre caption="Setting the hostname"> 183<pre caption="Setting the hostname">
187# <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i> 184# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
185
186<comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your hostname)</comment>
187HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>"
188</pre> 188</pre>
189 189
190<p> 190<p>
191Second we set the domainname: 191Second we set the domainname:
192</p> 192</p>
193 193
194<pre caption="Setting the domainname"> 194<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
195# <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i> 195# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i>
196
197<comment>(Set the DNSDOMAIN variable to your domain name)</comment>
198DNSDOMAIN="<i>homenetwork</i>"
196</pre> 199</pre>
197 200
198<p> 201<p>
199If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have 202If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
200one), you need to define that one too: 203one), you need to define that one too:
201</p> 204</p>
202 205
203<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname"> 206<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
204# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i> 207# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i>
208
209<comment>(Set the NISDOMAIN variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
210NISDOMAIN="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
205</pre> 211</pre>
206 212
207<p> 213<p>
208Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel: 214Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
209</p> 215</p>
218<title>Configuring your Network</title> 224<title>Configuring your Network</title>
219<body> 225<body>
220 226
221<p> 227<p>
222Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember 228Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
223that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was 229that the networking you set up in the beginning of the Gentoo installation was
224just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for 230just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
225your Gentoo system permanently. 231your Gentoo system permanently.
226</p> 232</p>
227 233
234<note>
235More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
236bonding, bridging, 802.11q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
237link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
238</note>
239
228<p> 240<p>
229All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 241All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
230a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup 242a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
231networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :) 243networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
232</p> 244</p>
233 245
234<p> 246<p>
235First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> 247First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
239<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing"> 251<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
240# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i> 252# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
241</pre> 253</pre>
242 254
243<p> 255<p>
244The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following 256The first variable you'll find is called <c>config_eth0</c>. As you can probably
245syntax: 257imagine, this variable configured the eth0 network interface. If the interface
246</p> 258needs to automatically obtain an IP address through DHCP, you should set it
247 259like so:
248<pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
249iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
250</pre>
251
252<p> 260</p>
253If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 261
254to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>. 262<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
255If you need to setup your network manually and you're 263config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
256not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 264</pre>
257link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#network_term">Understanding Network 265
258Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
259</p> 266<p>
260 267However, if you have to enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
268to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
261<p> 269</p>
262So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static 270
263IP (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and 271<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
264gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for 272config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0" )
265rp-pppoe usage: 273routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" )
274</pre>
275
266</p> 276<p>
267 277If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
268<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net"> 278<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
269<comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
270iface_eth0="dhcp"
271<comment># Some network admins require that you use the</comment>
272<comment># hostname and domainname provided by the DHCP server.</comment>
273<comment># In that case, add the following to let dhcpcd use them.</comment>
274<comment># That will override your own hostname and domainname definitions.</comment>
275dhcpcd_eth0="-HD"
276<comment># If you intend on using NTP to keep your machine clock synchronized, use</comment>
277<comment># the -N option to prevent dhcpcd from overwriting your /etc/ntp.conf file</comment>
278dhcpcd_eth0="-N"
279
280<comment>(For static IP)</comment>
281iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
282gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
283
284<comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
285iface_eth0="up"
286</pre>
287
288<p>
289If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
290like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
291shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer.
292</p> 279</p>
293 280
294<p> 281<p>
295Now save the configuration and exit to continue. 282Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
296</p> 283</p>
300<subsection> 287<subsection>
301<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 288<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
302<body> 289<body>
303 290
304<p> 291<p>
305To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the 292To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
306default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 293default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
307the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script. 294the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
308</p> 295</p>
309 296
310<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 297<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
350</pre> 337</pre>
351 338
352<p> 339<p>
353If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name 340If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
354resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your 341resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
355system <c>tux.homenetwork</c>: 342system <c>tux</c>:
356</p> 343</p>
357 344
358<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs"> 345<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
359127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost 346127.0.0.1 localhost tux
360</pre> 347</pre>
361 348
362<p> 349<p>
363Save and exit the editor to continue. 350Save and exit the editor to continue.
364</p> 351</p>
378<note> 365<note>
379pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms. 366pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
380</note> 367</note>
381 368
382<p> 369<p>
383PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. The 370PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
371includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
372using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
384<c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment: 373to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
385</p> 374</p>
386 375
387<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 376<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
388# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i> 377# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
389</pre> 378</pre>
437<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf"> 426<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
438# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 427# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
439</pre> 428</pre>
440 429
441<p> 430<p>
431When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit.
432</p>
433
434<p>
442As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary 435As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
443configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if 436configuration variables. Among other settings, you can configure your console
444you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on 437fonts, your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
445your keyboard. 438</p>
439
440<p>
441Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
442Edit it to configure your keyboard.
443</p>
444
445<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
446# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
447</pre>
448
449<p>
450Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong
451<c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
446</p> 452</p>
447 453
448<note> 454<note>
449Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to 455Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
450select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap". 456select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
451</note> 457</note>
452 458
453<p> 459<p>
454<b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use 460<b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use
455ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have 461ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have
456to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>. 462to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
457</p>
458
459<p> 463</p>
464
465<p>
466When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
467exit.
468</p>
469
470<p>
471Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
472according to your needs.
473</p>
474
475<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock">
476# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
477</pre>
478
479<p>
480If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> to
481the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
482</p>
483
484<p>
460When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then 485When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and
486exit.
487</p>
488
489<p>
490If you are not installing Gentoo on an IBM POWER5 or JS20 system, continue with
491<uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System Tools</uri>.
492</p>
493
494</body>
495</subsection>
496<subsection>
497<title>Configuring the Console</title>
498<body>
499
500<note>
501The following section applies to the IBM POWER5 and JS20 hardware platforms.
502</note>
503
504<p>
505If you are running Gentoo in an LPAR or on a JS20 blade, you must uncomment
506the hvc line in /etc/inittab for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
507</p>
508
509<pre caption="Enabling hvc support in /etc/inittab">
510hvc:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -nl /bin/bashlogin 9600 hvc0 vt220
511</pre>
512
513<p>
461continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System 514You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
462Tools</uri>. 515System Tools</uri>.
463</p> 516</p>
464 517
465</body> 518</body>
466</subsection> 519</subsection>
467</section> 520</section>

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