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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
1<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
2<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.115 2012/04/29 16:52:20 swift Exp $ -->
3 8
4<sections> 9<sections>
5<section>
6<title>Timezone</title>
7<body>
8 10
9<p> 11<abstract>
10You now need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is 12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
11located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a 13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
12symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>: 14proceed.
13</p> 15</abstract>
14 16
15<pre caption="Setting the timezone information"> 17<version>21</version>
16# <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i> 18<date>2012-04-29</date>
17<comment>(Suppose you want to use GTM:)</comment>
18# <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
19</pre>
20 19
21</body>
22</section>
23<section> 20<section>
24<title>Filesystem Information</title> 21<title>Filesystem Information</title>
25<subsection> 22<subsection>
26<title>What is fstab?</title> 23<title>What is fstab?</title>
27<body> 24<body>
28 25
29<p> 26<p>
30Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in 27Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
31<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions 28<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mount points of those partitions
32(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted 29(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
33(special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not, 30and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
34etc.). 31them or not, etc.)
35</p> 32</p>
36 33
37</body> 34</body>
38</subsection> 35</subsection>
39<subsection> 36<subsection>
40<title>Creating /etc/fstab</title> 37<title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
41<body> 38<body>
42 39
43<p> 40<p>
44<path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntaxis. Every line consists of six 41<path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
45fields, seperated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has 42fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
46its own meaning: 43its own meaning:
47</p> 44</p>
48 45
49<ul> 46<ul>
50<li> 47<li>
51 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device 48 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
52 file) 49 file)
53</li> 50</li>
54<li> 51<li>
55 The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be 52 The second field shows the <b>mount point</b> at which the partition should be
56 mounted 53 mounted
57</li> 54</li>
58<li> 55<li>
59 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition 56 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
60</li> 57</li>
61<li> 58<li>
62 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it 59 The fourth field shows the <b>mount options</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
63 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions, 60 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mount options,
64 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full 61 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
65 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-seperated. 62 listing. Multiple mount options are comma-separated.
66</li> 63</li>
67<li> 64<li>
68 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 65 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
69 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 66 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
70</li> 67</li>
71<li> 68<li>
72 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> the order in which filesystems should 69 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
73 be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly. The root filesystem 70 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
74 should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> (or <c>0</c> in case 71 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
75 a filesystem check isn't necessary). 72 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
76</li> 73</li>
77</ul> 74</ul>
78 75
79<p> 76<impo>
80So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 77The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
81<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 78fstab file</e>. You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
82</p> 79</impo>
83 80
84<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 81<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
85# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 82# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
86</pre> 83</pre>
87 84
85</body>
86<body test="func:keyval('/boot')">
87
88<p> 88<p>
89Lets take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 89Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
90partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a 90partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a
91<path>/boot</path> partition, don't copy it verbatim. 91<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it.
92</p>
93
94<p> 92</p>
93
94<p>
95In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the 95In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
96<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. It shouldn't 96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
97be mounted automatically (<c>noauto</c>) but does need to be checked. So we 97filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
98would write down:
99</p> 98</p>
100 99
101<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 100<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
102/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto 1 2 101<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
103</pre> 102</pre>
104 103
105<p>
106Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
107option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
108aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
109</p> 104<p>
110 105Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
111<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 106automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
112/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 107substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
113</pre> 108manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
114
115<p> 109</p>
116If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for 110
117<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition): 111</body>
112<body>
113
118</p> 114<p>
115Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for
116your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives,
117for those too.
118</p>
119 119
120<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines"> 120<p>
121/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 121Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
122</p>
123
124<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
125<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
126/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
127/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
128
129/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
130</pre>
131
132<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
133<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
122/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 134/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
123/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 135/dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
124</pre>
125 136
126<p> 137/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
127To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
128(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
129partitions or drives, for those too):
130</p> 138</pre>
131 139
132<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example"> 140<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
133/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 141/dev/sda1 / ext3 noatime 0 1
134/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 142/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
143/dev/sda4 /usr ext3 noatime 0 2
144/dev/sda5 /var ext3 noatime 0 2
145/dev/sda6 /home ext3 noatime 0 2
146
147<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment>
148openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
149
150/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
151</pre>
152
153<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or
154func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
135/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 155/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
156/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
136 157
137none /proc proc defaults 0 0
138none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0
139
140/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 158/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
141</pre> 159</pre>
142 160
143<p> 161<p>
144<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for 162<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
145removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and 163removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
146<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD. 164<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
147</p> 165</p>
148 166
149<p> 167<p>
150Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a 168To improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
151SPARC-user, you should add the following line to your <path>/etc/fstab</path> 169mount option, which results in a faster system since access times
152too: 170aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway).
153</p>
154
155<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
156none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
157</pre>
158
159<p> 171</p>
160If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>: 172
161</p> 173<p>
162
163<pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
164none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
165</pre>
166
167<p>
168Reread your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 174Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
169</p> 175</p>
170 176
171</body> 177</body>
172</subsection> 178</subsection>
173</section> 179</section>
174<section> 180<section>
175<title>Networking Information</title> 181<title>Networking Information</title>
176<subsection> 182<subsection>
177<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title> 183<title>Host name, Domainname, etc</title>
178<body> 184<body>
179 185
180<p> 186<p>
181One of the choices the user has to make is name his PC. This seems to be quite 187One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
182easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the appropriate 188quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
183name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you choose can 189appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
184be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system 190choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
185<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>. 191<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
186</p> 192</p>
187 193
188<p>
189We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
190</p>
191
192<pre caption="Setting the hostname"> 194<pre caption="Setting the host name">
193# <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i> 195# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
194</pre>
195 196
197<comment>(Set the hostname variable to your host name)</comment>
198hostname="<i>tux</i>"
199</pre>
200
196<p> 201<p>
197Second we set the domainname: 202Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>.
203You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you
204have a DNS server but not a DHCP server. You don't need to worry about DNS or
205domainnames if your networking is setup for DHCP.
198</p> 206</p>
199 207
200<pre caption="Setting the domainname"> 208<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
201# <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i> 209# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
210
211<comment>(Set the dns_domain variable to your domain name)</comment>
212dns_domain_lo="<i>homenetwork</i>"
202</pre> 213</pre>
214
215<note>
216If you choose not to set a domainname, you can get rid of the "This is
217hostname.(none)" messages at your login screen by editing
218<path>/etc/issue</path>. Just delete the string <c>.\O</c> from that file.
219</note>
203 220
204<p> 221<p>
205If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have 222If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
206one), you need to define that one too: 223one), you need to define that one too:
207</p> 224</p>
208 225
209<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname"> 226<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
210# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i> 227# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
228
229<comment>(Set the nis_domain variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
230nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
211</pre> 231</pre>
232
233<note>
234For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
235provided in <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> which
236can be read using <c>bzless</c>. Also, you may want to emerge <c>openresolv</c>
237to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
238</note>
212 239
213</body> 240</body>
214</subsection> 241</subsection>
215<subsection> 242<subsection>
216<title>Configuring your Network</title> 243<title>Configuring your Network</title>
217<body> 244<body>
218 245
219<p> 246<p>
220Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember 247Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
221that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was 248that the networking you set up in the beginning of the Gentoo installation was
222just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for 249just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
223your Gentoo system permanently. 250your Gentoo system permanently.
224</p> 251</p>
225 252
253<note>
254More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
255bonding, bridging, 802.1Q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
256link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
257</note>
258
226<p> 259<p>
227All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 260All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
228a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup 261a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
229networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :) 262networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
230</p> 263commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
231 264<path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path>.
232<p> 265</p>
266
267<p>
268DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
269client. This is described later in <uri
270link="?part=1&amp;chap=9#networking-tools">Installing Necessary System
271Tools</uri>. Do not forget to install a DHCP client.
272</p>
273
274<p>
275If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
276specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
233First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> 277<path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> is used in
234is used in this example): 278this example):
235</p> 279</p>
236 280
237<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing"> 281<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
238# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i> 282# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
239</pre> 283</pre>
240 284
241<p> 285<p>
242The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following 286You will see the following file:
243syntax:
244</p>
245
246<pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
247iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
248</pre>
249
250<p> 287</p>
251If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 288
252to <c>dhcp</c>. However, if you need to setup your network manually and you're 289<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
253not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 290# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
254link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network 291# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
255Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already. 292# please review /usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2 and save
293# your configuration in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
294</pre>
295
256</p> 296<p>
257 297To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
298to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
258<p> 299</p>
259So lets give two examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static IP 300
260(192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and gateway 301<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
261192.168.0.1: 302config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255"
303routes_eth0="default via 192.168.0.1"
304</pre>
305
262</p> 306<p>
263 307To use DHCP, define <c>config_eth0</c>:
264<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
265<comment>(For DHCP:)</comment>
266iface_eth0="dhcp"
267
268<comment>(For static IP:)</comment>
269iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
270gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
271</pre>
272
273<p> 308</p>
274If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables, 309
275like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable 310<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
276shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer. 311config_eth0="dhcp"
312</pre>
313
314<p>
315Please read <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> for a
316list of all available options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if
317you need to set specific DHCP options.
318</p>
319
320<p>
321If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
322<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
277</p> 323</p>
278 324
279<p> 325<p>
280Now save the configuration and exit to continue. 326Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
281</p> 327</p>
285<subsection> 331<subsection>
286<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 332<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
287<body> 333<body>
288 334
289<p> 335<p>
290To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the 336To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
291default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 337default runlevel.
292the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
293</p> 338</p>
294 339
295<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 340<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
341# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
342# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth0</i>
296# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i> 343# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
297</pre> 344</pre>
298 345
299<p> 346<p>
300If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate 347If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
301<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can 348<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. just like you did with
302use <c>ln</c> to do this: 349<path>net.eth0</path>.
303</p>
304
305<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
306# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
307# <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
308# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
309</pre> 350</p>
310 351
311</body> 352</body>
312</subsection> 353</subsection>
313<subsection> 354<subsection>
314<title>Writing Down Network Information</title> 355<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
315<body> 356<body>
316 357
317<p> 358<p>
318You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in 359You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
319<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses 360<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving host names to IP addresses for
320for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your 361hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. You need to define your system.
321internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5), 362You may also want to define other systems on your network if you don't want to
322<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (this system) you would 363set up your own internal DNS system.
323open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
324</p> 364</p>
325 365
326<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts"> 366<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
327# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i> 367# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
328</pre> 368</pre>
329 369
330<pre caption="Filling in the networking information"> 370<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
371<comment>(This defines the current system)</comment>
331127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork localhost 372127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
332192.168.0.5 jenny
333192.168.0.56 benny
334</pre>
335 373
336<p> 374<comment>(Define extra systems on your network,
337If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name 375they need to have a static IP to be defined this way.)</comment>
338resolution) a single line is sufficient: 376192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
339</p> 377192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
340
341<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
342127.0.0.1 localhost tux
343</pre> 378</pre>
344 379
345<p> 380<p>
346Save and exit the editor to continue. 381Save and exit the editor to continue.
347</p> 382</p>
348 383
349<p> 384<p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
350If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri 385If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
351link="#doc_chap4">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the 386link="#sysinfo">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
352following topic on PCMCIA. 387following topic on PCMCIA.
353</p> 388</p>
354 389
355</body> 390</body>
356</subsection> 391</subsection>
357<subsection> 392<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
358<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title> 393<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
359<body> 394<body>
360 395
361<p> 396<p>
362PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package: 397PCMCIA users should first install the <c>pcmciautils</c> package.
363</p> 398</p>
364 399
365<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 400<pre caption="Installing pcmciautils">
366# <i>emerge -k pcmcia-cs</i> 401# <i>emerge pcmciautils</i>
367</pre>
368
369<p>
370When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>boot</e>
371runlevel:
372</p>
373
374<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
375# <i>rc-update add pcmcia boot</i>
376</pre> 402</pre>
377 403
378</body> 404</body>
379</subsection> 405</subsection>
380</section> 406</section>
381<section> 407
408<section id="sysinfo">
382<title>System Information</title> 409<title>System Information</title>
410<subsection>
411<title>Root Password</title>
412<body>
413
414<p>
415First we set the root password by typing:
416</p>
417
418<pre caption="Setting the root password">
419# <i>passwd</i>
420</pre>
421
383<body> 422</body>
423</subsection>
424<subsection>
425<title>System Information</title>
426<body>
384 427
385<p>
386Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
387Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
388</p> 428<p>
429Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to configure the services, startup,
430and shutdown of your system. Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all
431the comments in the file.
432</p>
389 433
390<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf"> 434<pre caption="Configuring services">
391# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 435# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
392</pre> 436</pre>
393 437
394<p> 438<p>
395As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary 439When you're finished configuring these two files, save them and exit.
396configuration variables. When you're finished configuring 440</p>
397<path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit to continue. 441
398</p> 442<p>
443Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
444Edit it to configure your keyboard.
445</p>
399 446
447<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
448# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
449</pre>
450
451<p>
452Take special care with the <c>keymap</c> variable. If you select the wrong
453<c>keymap</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
454</p>
455
456<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
457PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems.
458</note>
459
460<p>
461When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
462exit.
463</p>
464
465<p>
466Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
467according to your needs.
468</p>
469
470<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/hwclock">
471# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock</i>
472</pre>
473
474<p>
475If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>clock="local"</c>
476to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
477</p>
478
479<p>
480When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path>, save and
481exit.
482</p>
483
484<p>
485You should define the timezone that you previously copied to
486<path>/etc/localtime</path> in the <path>/etc/timezone</path> file so that
487further upgrades of the <c>sys-libs/timezone-data</c> package can update
488<path>/etc/localtime</path> automatically. For instance, if you used the
489Europe/Brussels timezone, you would write <c>Europe/Brussels</c> in the
490<path>/etc/timezone</path> file.
491</p>
492
493</body>
494</subsection>
495
496<subsection>
497<title>Configure locales</title>
400</body> 498<body>
499
500<p>
501You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You have to
502specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
503</p>
504
505<pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
506# <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
507</pre>
508
509<p>
510The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
511German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
512</p>
513
514<pre caption="Specify your locales">
515en_US ISO-8859-1
516en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
517de_DE ISO-8859-1
518de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
519</pre>
520
521<note>
522You can select your desired locales in the list given by running <c>locale -a</c>.
523</note>
524
525<warn>
526We strongly suggest that you should use at least one UTF-8 locale because some
527applications may require it.
528</warn>
529
530<p>
531The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generates all the locales you
532have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
533</p>
534
535<pre caption="Running locale-gen">
536# <i>locale-gen</i>
537</pre>
538
539<p>
540Once done, you now have the possibility to set the system-wide locale settings
541in the <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> file:
542</p>
543
544<pre caption="Setting the default system locale in /etc/env.d/02locale">
545LANG="de_DE.UTF-8"
546LC_COLLATE="C"
547</pre>
548
549<p>
550And reload your environment:
551</p>
552
553<pre caption="Reload shell environment">
554# env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile
555</pre>
556
557<p>
558We made a full <uri link="../guide-localization.xml#doc_chap3">Localization
559Guide</uri> to help you through this process. You can also read our detailed
560<uri link="../utf-8.xml#doc_chap2">UTF-8 Guide</uri> for very specific
561informations to enable UTF-8 on your system.
562</p>
563
564<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
565Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
566Tools</uri>.
567</p>
568
569</body>
570</subsection>
571<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
572<title>Configuring the Console</title>
573<body>
574
575<p>
576If you are using a virtual console, you must uncomment the appropriate line in
577<path>/etc/inittab</path> for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
578</p>
579
580<pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab">
581hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0
582hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0
583</pre>
584
585<p>
586You should also take this time to verify that the appropriate console is
587listed in <path>/etc/securetty</path>.
588</p>
589
590<p>
591You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
592System Tools</uri>.
593</p>
594
595</body>
596</subsection>
401</section> 597</section>
402</sections> 598</sections>

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