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1<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
2<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
3
1<sections> 4<sections>
2<section> 5<section>
3<title>Timezone</title> 6<title>Timezone</title>
4<body> 7<body>
5 8
6<p> 9<p>
7<path>/etc/localtime</path>. 10You now need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
11located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a
12symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>:
13</p>
14
15<pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
16# <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
17<comment>(Suppose you want to use GTM:)</comment>
18# <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
8</p> 19</pre>
9 20
10</body> 21</body>
11</section> 22</section>
12<section> 23<section>
13<title>Filesystem Information</title> 24<title>Filesystem Information</title>
25<subsection>
26<title>What is fstab?</title>
27<body>
28
29<p>
30Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
31<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
32(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
33(special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not,
34etc.).
35</p>
36
14<body> 37</body>
38</subsection>
39<subsection>
40<title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
41<body>
15 42
43<p>
44<path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntaxis. Every line consists of six
45fields, seperated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
46its own meaning:
16<p> 47</p>
48
49<ul>
50<li>
51 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
52 file)
53</li>
54<li>
55 The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be
56 mounted
57</li>
58<li>
59 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
60</li>
61<li>
62 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
63 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
64 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
65 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-seperated.
66</li>
67<li>
68 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
69 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
70</li>
71<li>
72 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> the order in which filesystems should
73 be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly. The root filesystem
74 should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> (or <c>0</c> in case
75 a filesystem check isn't necessary).
76</li>
77</ul>
78
79<p>
80So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
17<path>/etc/fstab</path> 81<path>/etc/fstab</path>:
82</p>
83
84<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
85# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
86</pre>
87
18</p> 88<p>
89Lets take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
90partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
91<path>/boot</path> partition, don't copy it verbatim.
92</p>
19 93
94<p>
95In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
96<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. It shouldn't
97be mounted automatically (<c>noauto</c>) but does need to be checked. So we
98would write down:
99</p>
100
101<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
102/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto 1 2
103</pre>
104
105<p>
106Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
107option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
108aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
109</p>
110
111<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
112/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
113</pre>
114
115<p>
116If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
117<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
118</p>
119
120<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
121/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
122/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
123/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
124</pre>
125
126<p>
127To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
128(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
129partitions or drives, for those too):
130</p>
131
132<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
133/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2
134/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
135/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
136
137none /proc proc defaults 0 0
138none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0
139
140/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
141</pre>
142
143<p>
144<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
145removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
146<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
147</p>
148
149<p>
150Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
151SPARC-user, you should add the following line to your <path>/etc/fstab</path>
152too:
153</p>
154
155<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
156none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
157</pre>
158
159<p>
160If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
161</p>
162
163<pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
164none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
165</pre>
166
167<p>
168Reread your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
169</p>
170
20</body> 171</body>
172</subsection>
21</section> 173</section>
22<section> 174<section>
23<title>Networking Information</title> 175<title>Networking Information</title>
24<body> 176<subsection>
25 177<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
26<p>
27<path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>, <c>rc-update add net.eth0</c>,
28PCMCIA-information etc.
29</p>
30
31</body> 178<body>
179
180<p>
181One of the choices the user has to make is name his PC. This seems to be quite
182easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the appropriate
183name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you choose can
184be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
185<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
186</p>
187
188<p>
189We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
190</p>
191
192<pre caption="Setting the hostname">
193# <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i>
194</pre>
195
196<p>
197Second we set the domainname:
198</p>
199
200<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
201# <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i>
202</pre>
203
204<p>
205If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
206one), you need to define that one too:
207</p>
208
209<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
210# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
211</pre>
212
213</body>
214</subsection>
215<subsection>
216<title>Configuring your Network</title>
217<body>
218
219<p>
220Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
221that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was
222just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
223your Gentoo system permanently.
224</p>
225
226<p>
227All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
228a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup
229networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
230</p>
231
232<p>
233First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
234is used in this example):
235</p>
236
237<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
238# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
239</pre>
240
241<p>
242The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following
243syntax:
244</p>
245
246<pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
247iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
248</pre>
249
250<p>
251If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c>
252to <c>dhcp</c>. However, if you need to setup your network manually and you're
253not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri
254link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network
255Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
256</p>
257
258<p>
259So lets give two examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static IP
260(192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and gateway
261192.168.0.1:
262</p>
263
264<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
265<comment>(For DHCP:)</comment>
266iface_eth0="dhcp"
267
268<comment>(For static IP:)</comment>
269iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
270gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
271</pre>
272
273<p>
274If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
275like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
276shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer.
277</p>
278
279<p>
280Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
281</p>
282
283</body>
284</subsection>
285<subsection>
286<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
287<body>
288
289<p>
290To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the
291default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
292the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
293</p>
294
295<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
296# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
297</pre>
298
299<p>
300If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
301<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
302use <c>ln</c> to do this:
303</p>
304
305<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
306# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
307# <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
308# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
309</pre>
310
311</body>
312</subsection>
313<subsection>
314<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
315<body>
316
317<p>
318You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
319<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
320for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
321internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
322<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (this system) you would
323open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
324</p>
325
326<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
327# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
328</pre>
329
330<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
331127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork localhost
332192.168.0.5 jenny
333192.168.0.56 benny
334</pre>
335
336<p>
337If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
338resolution) a single line is sufficient:
339</p>
340
341<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
342127.0.0.1 localhost tux
343</pre>
344
345<p>
346Save and exit the editor to continue.
347</p>
348
349<p>
350If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
351link="#doc_chap4">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
352following topic on PCMCIA.
353</p>
354
355</body>
356</subsection>
357<subsection>
358<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
359<body>
360
361<p>
362PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package:
363</p>
364
365<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
366# <i>emerge -k pcmcia-cs</i>
367</pre>
368
369<p>
370When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>boot</e>
371runlevel:
372</p>
373
374<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
375# <i>rc-update add pcmcia boot</i>
376</pre>
377
378</body>
379</subsection>
32</section> 380</section>
33<section> 381<section>
34<title>System Information</title> 382<title>System Information</title>
35<body> 383<body>
36 384
37<p> 385<p>
38<path>/etc/rc.conf</path> 386Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
387Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
388</p>
389
390<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
391# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
392</pre>
393
394<p>
395As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
396configuration variables. When you're finished configuring
397<path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit to continue.
39</p> 398</p>
40 399
41</body> 400</body>
42</section> 401</section>
43</sections> 402</sections>

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