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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
1<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
2<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
3 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.45 2004/08/30 17:44:00 neysx Exp $ -->
8
4<sections> 9<sections>
5<section>
6<title>Timezone</title>
7<body>
8
9<p>
10You now need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is
11located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a
12symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>:
13</p>
14
15<pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
16# <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
17<comment>(Suppose you want to use GTM:)</comment>
18# <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
19</pre>
20
21</body>
22</section>
23<section> 10<section>
24<title>Filesystem Information</title> 11<title>Filesystem Information</title>
25<subsection> 12<subsection>
26<title>What is fstab?</title> 13<title>What is fstab?</title>
27<body> 14<body>
28 15
29<p> 16<p>
30Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in 17Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
31<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions 18<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
32(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted 19(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
33(special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not, 20and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
34etc.). 21them or not, etc.)
35</p> 22</p>
36 23
37</body> 24</body>
38</subsection> 25</subsection>
39<subsection> 26<subsection>
40<title>Creating /etc/fstab</title> 27<title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
41<body> 28<body>
42 29
43<p> 30<p>
44<path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntaxis. Every line consists of six 31<path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
45fields, seperated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has 32fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
46its own meaning: 33its own meaning:
47</p> 34</p>
48 35
49<ul> 36<ul>
50<li> 37<li>
60</li> 47</li>
61<li> 48<li>
62 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it 49 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
63 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions, 50 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
64 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full 51 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
65 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-seperated. 52 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
66</li> 53</li>
67<li> 54<li>
68 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 55 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
69 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 56 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
70</li> 57</li>
71<li> 58<li>
72 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> the order in which filesystems should 59 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
73 be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly. The root filesystem 60 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
74 should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> (or <c>0</c> in case 61 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
75 a filesystem check isn't necessary). 62 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
76</li> 63</li>
77</ul> 64</ul>
78 65
79<p> 66<p>
67The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab
80So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 68file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
81<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 69<path>/etc/fstab</path>:
82</p> 70</p>
83 71
84<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 72<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
85# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 73# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
86</pre> 74</pre>
87 75
88<p> 76<p>
89Lets take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 77Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
90partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a 78partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
91<path>/boot</path> partition, don't copy it verbatim. 79<path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim.
92</p> 80</p>
93 81
94<p> 82<p>
95In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the 83In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
96<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. It shouldn't 84<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
97be mounted automatically (<c>noauto</c>) but does need to be checked. So we 85It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
98would write down:
99</p> 86</p>
100 87
101<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 88<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
102/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto 1 2 89/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
90</pre>
91
92<p>
93Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
94automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
95substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
96manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
103</pre> 97</p>
104 98
105<p> 99<p>
106Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c> 100Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
107option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times 101option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
108aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway): 102aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
109</p> 103</p>
110 104
111<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 105<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
112/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 106/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
113</pre> 107</pre>
114 108
115<p> 109<p>
116If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for 110If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
117<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition): 111<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
118</p> 112</p>
119 113
120<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines"> 114<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
121/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 115/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
122/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 116/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
123/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 117/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
124</pre> 118</pre>
125 119
126<p> 120<p>
146<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD. 140<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
147</p> 141</p>
148 142
149<p> 143<p>
150Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a 144Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
151SPARC-user, you should add the following line to your <path>/etc/fstab</path> 145<b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your
146<path>/etc/fstab</path>
152too: 147too:
153</p> 148</p>
154 149
155<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab"> 150<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
156none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0 151none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
163<pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab"> 158<pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
164none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0 159none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
165</pre> 160</pre>
166 161
167<p> 162<p>
168Reread your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 163Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
169</p> 164</p>
170 165
171</body> 166</body>
172</subsection> 167</subsection>
173</section> 168</section>
176<subsection> 171<subsection>
177<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title> 172<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
178<body> 173<body>
179 174
180<p> 175<p>
181One of the choices the user has to make is name his PC. This seems to be quite 176One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
182easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the appropriate 177quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
183name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you choose can 178appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
184be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system 179choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
185<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>. 180<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
186</p> 181</p>
187 182
188<p> 183<p>
189We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname: 184We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
206one), you need to define that one too: 201one), you need to define that one too:
207</p> 202</p>
208 203
209<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname"> 204<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
210# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i> 205# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
206</pre>
207
208<p>
209Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
210</p>
211
212<pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel">
213# <i>rc-update add domainname default</i>
211</pre> 214</pre>
212 215
213</body> 216</body>
214</subsection> 217</subsection>
215<subsection> 218<subsection>
247iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>" 250iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
248</pre> 251</pre>
249 252
250<p> 253<p>
251If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 254If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c>
255to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>.
252to <c>dhcp</c>. However, if you need to setup your network manually and you're 256If you need to setup your network manually and you're
253not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 257not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri
254link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network 258link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#network_term">Understanding Network
255Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already. 259Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already.
256</p> 260</p>
257 261
258<p> 262<p>
259So lets give two examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static IP 263So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static
260(192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and gateway 264IP (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and
261192.168.0.1: 265gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for
266rp-pppoe usage:
262</p> 267</p>
263 268
264<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net"> 269<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net">
265<comment>(For DHCP:)</comment> 270<comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
266iface_eth0="dhcp" 271iface_eth0="dhcp"
272<comment># Some network admins require that you use the</comment>
273<comment># hostname and domainname provided by the DHCP server.</comment>
274<comment># In that case, add the following to let dhcpcd use them.</comment>
275<comment># That will override your own hostname and domainname definitions.</comment>
276dhcpcd_eth0="-HD"
277<comment># If you intend on using NTP to keep your machine clock synchronized, use</comment>
278<comment># the -N option to prevent dhcpcd from overwriting your /etc/ntp.conf file</comment>
279dhcpcd_eth0="-N"
267 280
268<comment>(For static IP:)</comment> 281<comment>(For static IP)</comment>
269iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0" 282iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
270gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1" 283gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
284
285<comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
286iface_eth0="up"
271</pre> 287</pre>
272 288
273<p> 289<p>
274If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables, 290If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
275like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable 291like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
285<subsection> 301<subsection>
286<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 302<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
287<body> 303<body>
288 304
289<p> 305<p>
290To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the 306To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
291default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 307default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
292the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script. 308the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
293</p> 309</p>
294 310
295<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 311<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
317<p> 333<p>
318You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in 334You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
319<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses 335<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
320for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your 336for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
321internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5), 337internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
322<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (this system) you would 338<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would
323open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values: 339open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
324</p> 340</p>
325 341
326<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts"> 342<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
327# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i> 343# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
328</pre> 344</pre>
329 345
330<pre caption="Filling in the networking information"> 346<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
331127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork localhost 347127.0.0.1 localhost
332192.168.0.5 jenny 348192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
333192.168.0.56 benny 349192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
350192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
334</pre> 351</pre>
335 352
336<p> 353<p>
337If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name 354If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
338resolution) a single line is sufficient: 355resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
356system <c>tux.homenetwork</c>:
339</p> 357</p>
340 358
341<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs"> 359<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
342127.0.0.1 localhost tux 360127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
343</pre> 361</pre>
344 362
345<p> 363<p>
346Save and exit the editor to continue. 364Save and exit the editor to continue.
347</p> 365</p>
348 366
349<p> 367<p>
350If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri 368If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
351link="#doc_chap4">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the 369link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
352following topic on PCMCIA. 370following topic on PCMCIA.
353</p> 371</p>
354 372
355</body> 373</body>
356</subsection> 374</subsection>
357<subsection> 375<subsection>
358<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title> 376<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
359<body> 377<body>
360 378
379<note>
380pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
381</note>
382
361<p> 383<p>
362PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package: 384PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. The
385<c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
363</p> 386</p>
364 387
365<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 388<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
366# <i>emerge -k pcmcia-cs</i> 389# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
367</pre> 390</pre>
368 391
369<p> 392<p>
370When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>boot</e> 393When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
371runlevel: 394runlevel:
372</p> 395</p>
373 396
374<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel"> 397<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
375# <i>rc-update add pcmcia boot</i> 398# <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
376</pre> 399</pre>
377 400
378</body> 401</body>
379</subsection> 402</subsection>
380</section> 403</section>
381<section> 404<section>
382<title>System Information</title> 405<title>System Information</title>
406<subsection>
407<title>Root Password</title>
408<body>
409
410<p>
411First we set the root password by typing:
412</p>
413
414<pre caption="Setting the root password">
415# <i>passwd</i>
416</pre>
417
418<p>
419If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
420<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
421</p>
422
423<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
424# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
425</pre>
426
427</body>
428</subsection>
429<subsection>
430<title>System Information</title>
383<body> 431<body>
384 432
385<p> 433<p>
386Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 434Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
387Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :) 435Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
391# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 439# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
392</pre> 440</pre>
393 441
394<p> 442<p>
395As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary 443As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
396configuration variables. When you're finished configuring 444configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if
397<path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit to continue. 445you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on
446your keyboard.
447</p>
448
449<note>
450Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
451select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
452</note>
453
398</p> 454<p>
455<b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use
456ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have
457to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
458</p>
399 459
460<p>
461When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then
462continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
463Tools</uri>.
464</p>
465
400</body> 466</body>
467</subsection>
401</section> 468</section>
402</sections> 469</sections>

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