/[gentoo]/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml
Gentoo

Diff of /xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log | View Patch Patch

Revision 1.7 Revision 1.65
1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
1<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
2<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 -->
3 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.65 2005/06/11 19:45:37 fox2mike Exp $ -->
8
4<sections> 9<sections>
5<section>
6<title>Timezone</title>
7<body>
8 10
9<p> 11<version>2.7</version>
10You now need to select your timezone so that your system knows where it is 12<date>2005-06-11</date>
11located. Look for your timezone in <path>/usr/share/zoneinfo</path>, then make a
12symlink to <path>/etc/localtime</path> using <c>ln</c>:
13</p>
14 13
15<pre caption="Setting the timezone information">
16# <i>ls /usr/share/zoneinfo</i>
17<comment>(Suppose you want to use GTM:)</comment>
18# <i>ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/GMT /etc/localtime</i>
19</pre>
20
21</body>
22</section>
23<section> 14<section>
24<title>Filesystem Information</title> 15<title>Filesystem Information</title>
25<subsection> 16<subsection>
26<title>What is fstab?</title> 17<title>What is fstab?</title>
27<body> 18<body>
28 19
29<p> 20<p>
30Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in 21Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
31<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions 22<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
32(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted 23(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
33(special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not, 24and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
34etc.). 25them or not, etc.)
35</p> 26</p>
36 27
37</body> 28</body>
38</subsection> 29</subsection>
39<subsection> 30<subsection>
40<title>Creating /etc/fstab</title> 31<title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
41<body> 32<body>
42 33
43<p> 34<p>
44<path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntaxis. Every line consists of six 35<path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
45fields, seperated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has 36fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
46its own meaning: 37its own meaning:
47</p> 38</p>
48 39
49<ul> 40<ul>
50<li> 41<li>
59 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition 50 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
60</li> 51</li>
61<li> 52<li>
62 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it 53 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
63 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions, 54 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
64 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full 55 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
65 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-seperated. 56 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
66</li> 57</li>
67<li> 58<li>
68 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 59 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
69 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 60 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
70</li> 61</li>
71<li> 62<li>
72 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> the order in which filesystems should 63 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
73 be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly. The root filesystem 64 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
74 should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> (or <c>0</c> in case 65 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
75 a filesystem check isn't necessary). 66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
76</li> 67</li>
77</ul> 68</ul>
78 69
79<p> 70<p>
71The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab
80So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 72file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
81<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 73<path>/etc/fstab</path>:
82</p> 74</p>
83 75
84<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 76<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
85# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 77# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
86</pre> 78</pre>
87 79
88<p> 80<p>
89Lets take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 81Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
90partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a 82partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
91<path>/boot</path> partition, don't copy it verbatim. 83<path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim.
92</p> 84</p>
93 85
94<p> 86<p>
95In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the 87In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
96<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. It shouldn't 88<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
97be mounted automatically (<c>noauto</c>) but does need to be checked. So we 89It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
98would write down:
99</p> 90</p>
100 91
101<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 92<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
102/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto 1 2 93/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
94</pre>
95
96<p>
97Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
98automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
99substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
100manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
103</pre> 101</p>
104 102
105<p> 103<p>
106Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c> 104Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
107option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times 105option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
108aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway): 106aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
109</p> 107</p>
110 108
111<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 109<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
112/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 110/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
113</pre> 111</pre>
114 112
115<p> 113<p>
116If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for 114If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
117<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition): 115<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
118</p> 116</p>
119 117
120<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines"> 118<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
121/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 119/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
122/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 120/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
123/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 121/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
124</pre> 122</pre>
125 123
126<p> 124<p>
128(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other 126(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
129partitions or drives, for those too): 127partitions or drives, for those too):
130</p> 128</p>
131 129
132<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example"> 130<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
133/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 131/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
134/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 132/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
135/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 133/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
136 134
137none /proc proc defaults 0 0 135none /proc proc defaults 0 0
138none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0 136none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
139 137
140/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 138/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
141</pre> 139</pre>
142 140
143<p> 141<p>
146<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD. 144<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
147</p> 145</p>
148 146
149<p> 147<p>
150Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a 148Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
151SPARC-user, you should add the following line to your <path>/etc/fstab</path> 149<b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your
150<path>/etc/fstab</path>
152too: 151too:
153</p> 152</p>
154 153
155<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab"> 154<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
156none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0 155none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
157</pre> 156</pre>
158 157
159<p> 158<p>
160If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
161</p>
162
163<pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
164none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
165</pre>
166
167<p>
168Reread your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 159Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
169</p> 160</p>
170 161
171</body> 162</body>
172</subsection> 163</subsection>
173</section> 164</section>
176<subsection> 167<subsection>
177<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title> 168<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
178<body> 169<body>
179 170
180<p> 171<p>
181One of the choices the user has to make is name his PC. This seems to be quite 172One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
182easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the appropriate 173quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
183name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you choose can 174appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
184be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system 175choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
185<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>. 176<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
186</p> 177</p>
187 178
188<p> 179<p>
189We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname: 180We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
206one), you need to define that one too: 197one), you need to define that one too:
207</p> 198</p>
208 199
209<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname"> 200<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
210# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i> 201# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i>
202</pre>
203
204<p>
205Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
206</p>
207
208<pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel">
209# <i>rc-update add domainname default</i>
211</pre> 210</pre>
212 211
213</body> 212</body>
214</subsection> 213</subsection>
215<subsection> 214<subsection>
221that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was 220that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was
222just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for 221just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
223your Gentoo system permanently. 222your Gentoo system permanently.
224</p> 223</p>
225 224
225<note>
226More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
227bonding, bridging, 802.11q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
228link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
229</note>
230
226<p> 231<p>
227All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 232All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
228a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup 233a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
229networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :) 234networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :)
230</p> 235</p>
231 236
232<p> 237<p>
233First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> 238First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c>
237<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing"> 242<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
238# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i> 243# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
239</pre> 244</pre>
240 245
241<p> 246<p>
242The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following 247The first variable you'll find is called <c>config_eth0</c>. As you can probably
243syntax: 248imagine, this variable configured the eth0 network interface. If the interface
244</p> 249needs to automatically obtain an IP address through DHCP, you should set it
245 250like so:
246<pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
247iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
248</pre>
249
250<p> 251</p>
251If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 252
252to <c>dhcp</c>. However, if you need to setup your network manually and you're 253<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
253not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 254config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
254link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network 255</pre>
255Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already. 256
256</p> 257<p>
257 258However, if you have to enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
259to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
258<p> 260</p>
259So lets give two examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static IP 261
260(192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and gateway 262<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
261192.168.0.1: 263config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0" )
264routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" )
265</pre>
266
262</p> 267<p>
263 268If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
264<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net"> 269<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
265<comment>(For DHCP:)</comment>
266iface_eth0="dhcp"
267
268<comment>(For static IP:)</comment>
269iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
270gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
271</pre>
272
273<p>
274If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
275like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
276shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer.
277</p> 270</p>
278 271
279<p> 272<p>
280Now save the configuration and exit to continue. 273Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
281</p> 274</p>
285<subsection> 278<subsection>
286<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 279<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
287<body> 280<body>
288 281
289<p> 282<p>
290To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the 283To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
291default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 284default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
292the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script. 285the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
293</p> 286</p>
294 287
295<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 288<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
317<p> 310<p>
318You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in 311You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
319<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses 312<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
320for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your 313for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
321internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5), 314internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
322<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (this system) you would 315<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would
323open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values: 316open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
324</p> 317</p>
325 318
326<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts"> 319<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
327# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i> 320# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
328</pre> 321</pre>
329 322
330<pre caption="Filling in the networking information"> 323<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
331127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork localhost 324127.0.0.1 localhost
332192.168.0.5 jenny 325192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
333192.168.0.56 benny 326192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
327192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
334</pre> 328</pre>
335 329
336<p> 330<p>
337If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name 331If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
338resolution) a single line is sufficient: 332resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
333system <c>tux</c>:
339</p> 334</p>
340 335
341<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs"> 336<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
342127.0.0.1 localhost tux 337127.0.0.1 localhost tux
343</pre> 338</pre>
344 339
345<p> 340<p>
346Save and exit the editor to continue. 341Save and exit the editor to continue.
347</p> 342</p>
348 343
349<p> 344<p>
350If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri 345If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
351link="#doc_chap4">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the 346link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
352following topic on PCMCIA. 347following topic on PCMCIA.
353</p> 348</p>
354 349
355</body> 350</body>
356</subsection> 351</subsection>
357<subsection> 352<subsection>
358<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title> 353<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
359<body> 354<body>
360 355
356<note>
357pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
358</note>
359
361<p> 360<p>
362PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package: 361PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
362includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
363using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
364to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
363</p> 365</p>
364 366
365<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 367<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
366# <i>emerge -k pcmcia-cs</i> 368# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
367</pre> 369</pre>
368 370
369<p> 371<p>
370When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>boot</e> 372When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
371runlevel: 373runlevel:
372</p> 374</p>
373 375
374<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel"> 376<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
375# <i>rc-update add pcmcia boot</i> 377# <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
376</pre> 378</pre>
377 379
378</body> 380</body>
379</subsection> 381</subsection>
380</section> 382</section>
381<section> 383<section>
382<title>System Information</title> 384<title>System Information</title>
385<subsection>
386<title>Root Password</title>
387<body>
388
389<p>
390First we set the root password by typing:
391</p>
392
393<pre caption="Setting the root password">
394# <i>passwd</i>
395</pre>
396
397<p>
398If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
399<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
400</p>
401
402<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
403# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
404</pre>
405
406</body>
407</subsection>
408<subsection>
409<title>System Information</title>
383<body> 410<body>
384 411
385<p> 412<p>
386Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 413Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
387Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :) 414Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
391# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 418# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
392</pre> 419</pre>
393 420
394<p> 421<p>
395As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary 422As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
396configuration variables. When you're finished configuring 423configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if
397<path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit to continue. 424you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on
425your keyboard.
426</p>
427
428<note>
429Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
430select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
431</note>
432
398</p> 433<p>
434<b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use
435ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have
436to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
437</p>
399 438
439<p>
440If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> to
441the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
442</p>
443
444<p>
445When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit.
446</p>
447
448<p>
449If you are not installing Gentoo on an IBM POWER5 or JS20 system, continue with
450<uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System Tools</uri>.
451</p>
452
453</body>
454</subsection>
455<subsection>
456<title>Configuring the Console</title>
400</body> 457<body>
458
459<note>
460The following section applies to the IBM POWER5 and JS20 hardware platforms.
461</note>
462
463<p>
464If you are running Gentoo in an LPAR or on a JS20 blade, you must uncomment
465the hvc line in /etc/inittab for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
466</p>
467
468<pre caption="Enabling hvc support in /etc/inittab">
469hvc:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -nl /bin/bashlogin 9600 hvc0 vt220
470</pre>
471
472<p>
473You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
474System Tools</uri>.
475</p>
476
477</body>
478</subsection>
401</section> 479</section>
402</sections> 480</sections>

Legend:
Removed from v.1.7  
changed lines
  Added in v.1.65

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.20