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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.72 2005/08/15 09:00:27 swift Exp $ -->
8
9<sections>
10
11<version>2.13</version>
12<date>2005-08-15</date>
13
1<section> 14<section>
2<subsection>
3<title>Timezone</title>
4<body>
5
6<p>
7<path>/etc/localtime</path>.
8</p>
9
10</body>
11</subsection>
12<subsection>
13<title>Filesystem Information</title> 15<title>Filesystem Information</title>
16<subsection>
17<title>What is fstab?</title>
18<body>
19
20<p>
21Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
22<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
23(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
24and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
25them or not, etc.)
26</p>
27
14<body> 28</body>
29</subsection>
30<subsection>
31<title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
32<body>
15 33
34<p>
35<path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
36fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
37its own meaning:
16<p> 38</p>
39
40<ul>
41<li>
42 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
43 file)
44</li>
45<li>
46 The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be
47 mounted
48</li>
49<li>
50 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
51</li>
52<li>
53 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
54 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
55 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
56 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
57</li>
58<li>
59 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
60 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
61</li>
62<li>
63 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
64 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
65 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
67</li>
68</ul>
69
70<p>
71The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab
72file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
73<path>/etc/fstab</path>:
74</p>
75
76<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
77# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
78</pre>
79
80<p>
81Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
82partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
83<path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim.
84</p>
85
86<p>
87In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
88<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
89It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
90</p>
91
92<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
93/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
94</pre>
95
96<p>
97Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
98automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
99substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
100manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
101</p>
102
103<p>
104Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
105option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
106aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
107</p>
108
109<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
110/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
111</pre>
112
113<p>
114If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
115<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
116</p>
117
118<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
119/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
120/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
121/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
122</pre>
123
124<p>
125To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
126(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
127partitions or drives, for those too):
128</p>
129
130<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
131/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
132/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
133/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
134
135none /proc proc defaults 0 0
136none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
137
138/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
139</pre>
140
141<p>
142<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
143removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
144<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
145</p>
146
147<p>
148Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
149<b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your
17<path>/etc/fstab</path> 150<path>/etc/fstab</path>
151too:
152</p>
153
154<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
155none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
156</pre>
157
18</p> 158<p>
159Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
160</p>
19 161
20</body> 162</body>
21</subsection>
22<subsection> 163</subsection>
164</section>
165<section>
23<title>Networking Information</title> 166<title>Networking Information</title>
24<body>
25
26<p>
27<path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>, <c>rc-update add net.eth0</c>,
28PCMCIA-information etc.
29</p>
30
31</body>
32</subsection> 167<subsection>
168<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
169<body>
170
171<p>
172One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
173quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
174appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
175choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
176<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
177</p>
178
179<p>
180We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
181</p>
182
183<pre caption="Setting the hostname">
184# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
185
186<comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your hostname)</comment>
187HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>"
188</pre>
189
190<p>
191Second we set the domainname:
192</p>
193
194<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
195# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i>
196
197<comment>(Set the DNSDOMAIN variable to your domain name)</comment>
198DNSDOMAIN="<i>homenetwork</i>"
199</pre>
200
201<p>
202If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
203one), you need to define that one too:
204</p>
205
206<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
207# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i>
208
209<comment>(Set the NISDOMAIN variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
210NISDOMAIN="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
211</pre>
212
213<p>
214Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
215</p>
216
217<pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel">
218# <i>rc-update add domainname default</i>
219</pre>
220
221</body>
33<subsection> 222</subsection>
223<subsection>
224<title>Configuring your Network</title>
225<body>
226
227<p>
228Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
229that the networking you set up in the beginning of the Gentoo installation was
230just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
231your Gentoo system permanently.
232</p>
233
234<note>
235More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
236bonding, bridging, 802.1Q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
237link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
238</note>
239
240<p>
241All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
242a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
243networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
244commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
245<path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>.
246</p>
247
248<p>
249DHCP is used by default and does not require any further configuration.
250</p>
251
252<p>
253If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
254specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
255<path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> is used in
256this example):
257</p>
258
259<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
260# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
261</pre>
262
263<p>
264You will see the following file:
265</p>
266
267<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
268# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
269# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
270# please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration
271# in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
272</pre>
273
274<p>
275To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
276to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
277</p>
278
279<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
280config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0" )
281routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" )
282</pre>
283
284<p>
285To use DHCP and add specific DHCP options, define <c>config_eth0</c> and
286<c>dhcp_eth0</c>:
287</p>
288
289<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
290config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
291dhcp_eth0="nodns nontp nonis"
292</pre>
293
294<p>
295Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available
296options.
297</p>
298
299<p>
300If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
301<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
302</p>
303
304<p>
305Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
306</p>
307
308</body>
309</subsection>
310<subsection>
311<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
312<body>
313
314<p>
315To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
316default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
317the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
318</p>
319
320<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
321# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
322</pre>
323
324<p>
325If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
326<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
327use <c>ln</c> to do this:
328</p>
329
330<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
331# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
332# <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
333# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
334</pre>
335
336</body>
337</subsection>
338<subsection>
339<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
340<body>
341
342<p>
343You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
344<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses
345for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your
346internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5),
347<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would
348open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
349</p>
350
351<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
352# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
353</pre>
354
355<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
356127.0.0.1 localhost
357192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
358192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
359192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
360</pre>
361
362<p>
363If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
364resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
365system <c>tux</c>:
366</p>
367
368<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
369127.0.0.1 localhost tux
370</pre>
371
372<p>
373Save and exit the editor to continue.
374</p>
375
376<p>
377If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
378link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
379following topic on PCMCIA.
380</p>
381
382</body>
383</subsection>
384<subsection>
385<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
386<body>
387
388<note>
389pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
390</note>
391
392<p>
393PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
394includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
395using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
396to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
397</p>
398
399<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
400# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
401</pre>
402
403<p>
404When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
405runlevel:
406</p>
407
408<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
409# <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
410</pre>
411
412</body>
413</subsection>
414</section>
415<section>
34<title>System Information</title> 416<title>System Information</title>
417<subsection>
418<title>Root Password</title>
419<body>
420
421<p>
422First we set the root password by typing:
423</p>
424
425<pre caption="Setting the root password">
426# <i>passwd</i>
427</pre>
428
429<p>
430If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
431<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
432</p>
433
434<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
435# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
436</pre>
437
35<body> 438</body>
439</subsection>
440<subsection>
441<title>System Information</title>
442<body>
36 443
444<p>
445Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
446Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
37<p> 447</p>
38<path>/etc/rc.conf</path> 448
449<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
450# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
451</pre>
452
453<p>
454When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit.
455</p>
456
457<p>
458As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
459configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
460define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
461</p>
462
463<p>
464Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
465Edit it to configure your keyboard.
466</p>
467
468<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
469# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
470</pre>
471
472<p>
473Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong
474<c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
475</p>
476
477<note>
478Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
479select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap". <b>PPC</b> uses x86
480keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB keymaps on boot
481have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to set a mac/ppc
482keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
483</note>
484
485<p>
486When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
487exit.
488</p>
489
490<p>
491Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
492according to your needs.
493</p>
494
495<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock">
496# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
497</pre>
498
499<p>
500If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> to
501the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
502</p>
503
504<p>
505When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and
506exit.
507</p>
508
509<p>
510If you are not installing Gentoo on IBM PPC64 hardware, continue with
511<uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System Tools</uri>.
512</p>
513
514</body>
515</subsection>
516<subsection>
517<title>Configuring the Console</title>
518<body>
519
520<note>
521The following section applies to the IBM PPC64 hardware platforms.
522</note>
523
524<p>
525If you are running Gentoo on IBM PPC64 hardware and using a virtual console
526you must uncomment the appropriate line in <path>/etc/inittab</path> for the
527virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
528</p>
529
530<pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab">
531hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0
532hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0
533</pre>
534
535<p>
536You should also take this time to verify that the appropriate console is
537listed in <path>/etc/securetty</path>.
538</p>
539
540<p>
541You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
542System Tools</uri>.
39</p> 543</p>
40 544
41</body> 545</body>
42</subsection> 546</subsection>
43</section> 547</section>
548</sections>

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