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3 3
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6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.72 2005/08/15 09:00:27 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.115 2012/04/29 16:52:20 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<abstract>
12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
14proceed.
15</abstract>
16
11<version>2.13</version> 17<version>21</version>
12<date>2005-08-15</date> 18<date>2012-04-29</date>
13 19
14<section> 20<section>
15<title>Filesystem Information</title> 21<title>Filesystem Information</title>
16<subsection> 22<subsection>
17<title>What is fstab?</title> 23<title>What is fstab?</title>
18<body> 24<body>
19 25
20<p> 26<p>
21Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in 27Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
22<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions 28<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mount points of those partitions
23(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted 29(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
24and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount 30and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
25them or not, etc.) 31them or not, etc.)
26</p> 32</p>
27 33
41<li> 47<li>
42 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device 48 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
43 file) 49 file)
44</li> 50</li>
45<li> 51<li>
46 The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be 52 The second field shows the <b>mount point</b> at which the partition should be
47 mounted 53 mounted
48</li> 54</li>
49<li> 55<li>
50 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition 56 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
51</li> 57</li>
52<li> 58<li>
53 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it 59 The fourth field shows the <b>mount options</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
54 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions, 60 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mount options,
55 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full 61 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
56 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated. 62 listing. Multiple mount options are comma-separated.
57</li> 63</li>
58<li> 64<li>
59 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 65 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
60 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 66 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
61</li> 67</li>
65 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> 71 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary). 72 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
67</li> 73</li>
68</ul> 74</ul>
69 75
70<p> 76<impo>
71The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab 77The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
72file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 78fstab file</e>. You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
73<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 79</impo>
74</p>
75 80
76<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 81<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
77# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 82# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
78</pre> 83</pre>
79 84
85</body>
86<body test="func:keyval('/boot')">
87
80<p> 88<p>
81Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 89Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
82partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a 90partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a
83<path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim. 91<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it.
84</p>
85
86<p> 92</p>
93
94<p>
87In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the 95In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
88<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. 96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
89It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down: 97filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
90</p> 98</p>
91 99
92<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 100<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
93/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2 101<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
94</pre> 102</pre>
95 103
96<p> 104<p>
97Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted 105Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
98automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should 106automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
99substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to 107substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
100manually mount this partition every time you want to use it. 108manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
101</p> 109</p>
102 110
103<p> 111</body>
104Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c> 112<body>
105option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times 113
106aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
107</p> 114<p>
108 115Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for
109<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 116your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives,
110/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 117for those too.
111</pre>
112
113<p> 118</p>
114If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for 119
115<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
116</p> 120<p>
121Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
122</p>
117 123
118<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines"> 124<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
119/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 125<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
120/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 126/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
121/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 127/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
122</pre>
123 128
124<p> 129/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
125To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
126(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
127partitions or drives, for those too):
128</p> 130</pre>
129 131
130<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example"> 132<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or func:keyval('arch')='AMD64'">
131/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 133<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
132/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 134/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
133/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 135/dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
134 136
135none /proc proc defaults 0 0 137/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
136none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0 138</pre>
137 139
140<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
141/dev/sda1 / ext3 noatime 0 1
142/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
143/dev/sda4 /usr ext3 noatime 0 2
144/dev/sda5 /var ext3 noatime 0 2
145/dev/sda6 /home ext3 noatime 0 2
146
147<comment># You must add the rules for openprom</comment>
148openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
149
138/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 150/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
151</pre>
152
153<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC' or
154func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
155/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
156/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
157
158/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
139</pre> 159</pre>
140 160
141<p> 161<p>
142<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for 162<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
143removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and 163removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
144<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD. 164<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
145</p> 165</p>
146 166
147<p> 167<p>
148Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a 168To improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
149<b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your 169mount option, which results in a faster system since access times
150<path>/etc/fstab</path> 170aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway).
151too:
152</p>
153
154<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
155none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
156</pre> 171</p>
157 172
158<p> 173<p>
159Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 174Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
160</p> 175</p>
161 176
163</subsection> 178</subsection>
164</section> 179</section>
165<section> 180<section>
166<title>Networking Information</title> 181<title>Networking Information</title>
167<subsection> 182<subsection>
168<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title> 183<title>Host name, Domainname, etc</title>
169<body> 184<body>
170 185
171<p> 186<p>
172One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be 187One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
173quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the 188quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
174appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you 189appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
175choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system 190choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
176<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>. 191<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
177</p> 192</p>
178 193
179<p>
180We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
181</p>
182
183<pre caption="Setting the hostname"> 194<pre caption="Setting the host name">
184# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i> 195# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
185 196
186<comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your hostname)</comment> 197<comment>(Set the hostname variable to your host name)</comment>
187HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>" 198hostname="<i>tux</i>"
188</pre> 199</pre>
189 200
190<p> 201<p>
191Second we set the domainname: 202Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>.
203You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you
204have a DNS server but not a DHCP server. You don't need to worry about DNS or
205domainnames if your networking is setup for DHCP.
192</p> 206</p>
193 207
194<pre caption="Setting the domainname"> 208<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
195# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i> 209# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
196 210
197<comment>(Set the DNSDOMAIN variable to your domain name)</comment> 211<comment>(Set the dns_domain variable to your domain name)</comment>
198DNSDOMAIN="<i>homenetwork</i>" 212dns_domain_lo="<i>homenetwork</i>"
199</pre> 213</pre>
214
215<note>
216If you choose not to set a domainname, you can get rid of the "This is
217hostname.(none)" messages at your login screen by editing
218<path>/etc/issue</path>. Just delete the string <c>.\O</c> from that file.
219</note>
200 220
201<p> 221<p>
202If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have 222If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
203one), you need to define that one too: 223one), you need to define that one too:
204</p> 224</p>
205 225
206<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname"> 226<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
207# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i> 227# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
208 228
209<comment>(Set the NISDOMAIN variable to your NIS domain name)</comment> 229<comment>(Set the nis_domain variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
210NISDOMAIN="<i>my-nisdomain</i>" 230nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
211</pre>
212
213<p>
214Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
215</p> 231</pre>
216 232
217<pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel"> 233<note>
218# <i>rc-update add domainname default</i> 234For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
219</pre> 235provided in <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> which
236can be read using <c>bzless</c>. Also, you may want to emerge <c>openresolv</c>
237to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
238</note>
220 239
221</body> 240</body>
222</subsection> 241</subsection>
223<subsection> 242<subsection>
224<title>Configuring your Network</title> 243<title>Configuring your Network</title>
240<p> 259<p>
241All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 260All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
242a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up 261a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
243networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully 262networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
244commented example that covers many different configurations is available in 263commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
245<path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. 264<path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path>.
246</p>
247
248<p> 265</p>
249DHCP is used by default and does not require any further configuration. 266
267<p>
268DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
269client. This is described later in <uri
270link="?part=1&amp;chap=9#networking-tools">Installing Necessary System
271Tools</uri>. Do not forget to install a DHCP client.
250</p> 272</p>
251 273
252<p> 274<p>
253If you need to configure your network connection either because you need 275If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
254specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open 276specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
265</p> 287</p>
266 288
267<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net"> 289<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
268# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.* 290# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
269# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration, 291# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
270# please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration 292# please review /usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2 and save
271# in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!). 293# your configuration in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
272</pre> 294</pre>
273 295
274<p> 296<p>
275To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need 297To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
276to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>: 298to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
277</p> 299</p>
278 300
279<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0"> 301<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
280config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0" ) 302config_eth0="192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255"
281routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" ) 303routes_eth0="default via 192.168.0.1"
282</pre> 304</pre>
283 305
284<p> 306<p>
285To use DHCP and add specific DHCP options, define <c>config_eth0</c> and 307To use DHCP, define <c>config_eth0</c>:
286<c>dhcp_eth0</c>:
287</p> 308</p>
288 309
289<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0"> 310<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
290config_eth0=( "dhcp" ) 311config_eth0="dhcp"
291dhcp_eth0="nodns nontp nonis"
292</pre> 312</pre>
293 313
294<p> 314<p>
295Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available 315Please read <path>/usr/share/doc/openrc-*/net.example.bz2</path> for a
296options. 316list of all available options. Be sure to also read your DHCP client manpage if
317you need to set specific DHCP options.
297</p> 318</p>
298 319
299<p> 320<p>
300If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for 321If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
301<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc. 322<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
311<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 332<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
312<body> 333<body>
313 334
314<p> 335<p>
315To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the 336To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
316default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 337default runlevel.
317the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
318</p> 338</p>
319 339
320<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 340<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
341# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
342# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth0</i>
321# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i> 343# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
322</pre> 344</pre>
323 345
324<p> 346<p>
325If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate 347If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
326<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can 348<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. just like you did with
327use <c>ln</c> to do this: 349<path>net.eth0</path>.
328</p>
329
330<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
331# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
332# <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
333# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
334</pre> 350</p>
335 351
336</body> 352</body>
337</subsection> 353</subsection>
338<subsection> 354<subsection>
339<title>Writing Down Network Information</title> 355<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
340<body> 356<body>
341 357
342<p> 358<p>
343You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in 359You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
344<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses 360<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving host names to IP addresses for
345for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your 361hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. You need to define your system.
346internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5), 362You may also want to define other systems on your network if you don't want to
347<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would 363set up your own internal DNS system.
348open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
349</p> 364</p>
350 365
351<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts"> 366<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
352# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i> 367# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
353</pre> 368</pre>
354 369
355<pre caption="Filling in the networking information"> 370<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
356127.0.0.1 localhost 371<comment>(This defines the current system)</comment>
372127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
373
374<comment>(Define extra systems on your network,
375they need to have a static IP to be defined this way.)</comment>
357192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny 376192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
358192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny 377192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
359192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
360</pre>
361
362<p>
363If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
364resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
365system <c>tux</c>:
366</p>
367
368<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
369127.0.0.1 localhost tux
370</pre> 378</pre>
371 379
372<p> 380<p>
373Save and exit the editor to continue. 381Save and exit the editor to continue.
374</p> 382</p>
375 383
376<p> 384<p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
377If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri 385If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
378link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the 386link="#sysinfo">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
379following topic on PCMCIA. 387following topic on PCMCIA.
380</p> 388</p>
381 389
382</body> 390</body>
383</subsection> 391</subsection>
384<subsection> 392<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
385<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title> 393<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
386<body> 394<body>
387 395
388<note>
389pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
390</note>
391
392<p> 396<p>
393PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also 397PCMCIA users should first install the <c>pcmciautils</c> package.
394includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
395using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
396to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
397</p> 398</p>
398 399
399<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 400<pre caption="Installing pcmciautils">
400# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i> 401# <i>emerge pcmciautils</i>
401</pre>
402
403<p>
404When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
405runlevel:
406</p>
407
408<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
409# <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
410</pre> 402</pre>
411 403
412</body> 404</body>
413</subsection> 405</subsection>
414</section> 406</section>
415<section> 407
408<section id="sysinfo">
416<title>System Information</title> 409<title>System Information</title>
417<subsection> 410<subsection>
418<title>Root Password</title> 411<title>Root Password</title>
419<body> 412<body>
420 413
424 417
425<pre caption="Setting the root password"> 418<pre caption="Setting the root password">
426# <i>passwd</i> 419# <i>passwd</i>
427</pre> 420</pre>
428 421
429<p>
430If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
431<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
432</p>
433
434<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
435# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
436</pre>
437
438</body> 422</body>
439</subsection> 423</subsection>
440<subsection> 424<subsection>
441<title>System Information</title> 425<title>System Information</title>
442<body> 426<body>
443 427
444<p> 428<p>
445Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 429Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> to configure the services, startup,
446Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :) 430and shutdown of your system. Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all
431the comments in the file.
447</p> 432</p>
448 433
449<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf"> 434<pre caption="Configuring services">
450# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 435# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
451</pre> 436</pre>
452 437
453<p> 438<p>
454When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit. 439When you're finished configuring these two files, save them and exit.
455</p>
456
457<p>
458As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
459configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
460define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
461</p> 440</p>
462 441
463<p> 442<p>
464Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration. 443Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
465Edit it to configure your keyboard. 444Edit it to configure your keyboard.
468<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps"> 447<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
469# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i> 448# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
470</pre> 449</pre>
471 450
472<p> 451<p>
473Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong 452Take special care with the <c>keymap</c> variable. If you select the wrong
474<c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard. 453<c>keymap</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
475</p> 454</p>
476 455
477<note> 456<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
478Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to 457PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems.
479select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap". <b>PPC</b> uses x86
480keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB keymaps on boot
481have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to set a mac/ppc
482keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
483</note> 458</note>
484 459
485<p> 460<p>
486When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and 461When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
487exit. 462exit.
488</p> 463</p>
489 464
490<p> 465<p>
491Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it 466Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
492according to your needs. 467according to your needs.
493</p> 468</p>
494 469
495<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock"> 470<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/hwclock">
496# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i> 471# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hwclock</i>
497</pre> 472</pre>
498 473
499<p> 474<p>
500If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> to 475If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>clock="local"</c>
501the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew. 476to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
502</p>
503
504<p> 477</p>
478
479<p>
505When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and 480When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/hwclock</path>, save and
506exit. 481exit.
507</p> 482</p>
508 483
509<p> 484<p>
510If you are not installing Gentoo on IBM PPC64 hardware, continue with 485You should define the timezone that you previously copied to
511<uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System Tools</uri>. 486<path>/etc/localtime</path> in the <path>/etc/timezone</path> file so that
487further upgrades of the <c>sys-libs/timezone-data</c> package can update
488<path>/etc/localtime</path> automatically. For instance, if you used the
489Europe/Brussels timezone, you would write <c>Europe/Brussels</c> in the
490<path>/etc/timezone</path> file.
512</p> 491</p>
513 492
514</body> 493</body>
515</subsection>
516<subsection> 494</subsection>
495
496<subsection>
497<title>Configure locales</title>
498<body>
499
500<p>
501You will probably only use one or maybe two locales on your system. You have to
502specify locales you will need in <path>/etc/locale.gen</path>.
503</p>
504
505<pre caption="Opening /etc/locale.gen">
506# <i>nano -w /etc/locale.gen</i>
507</pre>
508
509<p>
510The following locales are an example to get both English (United States) and
511German (Germany) with the accompanying character formats (like UTF-8).
512</p>
513
514<pre caption="Specify your locales">
515en_US ISO-8859-1
516en_US.UTF-8 UTF-8
517de_DE ISO-8859-1
518de_DE@euro ISO-8859-15
519</pre>
520
521<note>
522You can select your desired locales in the list given by running <c>locale -a</c>.
523</note>
524
525<warn>
526We strongly suggest that you should use at least one UTF-8 locale because some
527applications may require it.
528</warn>
529
530<p>
531The next step is to run <c>locale-gen</c>. It will generates all the locales you
532have specified in the <path>/etc/locale.gen</path> file.
533</p>
534
535<pre caption="Running locale-gen">
536# <i>locale-gen</i>
537</pre>
538
539<p>
540Once done, you now have the possibility to set the system-wide locale settings
541in the <path>/etc/env.d/02locale</path> file:
542</p>
543
544<pre caption="Setting the default system locale in /etc/env.d/02locale">
545LANG="de_DE.UTF-8"
546LC_COLLATE="C"
547</pre>
548
549<p>
550And reload your environment:
551</p>
552
553<pre caption="Reload shell environment">
554# env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile
555</pre>
556
557<p>
558We made a full <uri link="../guide-localization.xml#doc_chap3">Localization
559Guide</uri> to help you through this process. You can also read our detailed
560<uri link="../utf-8.xml#doc_chap2">UTF-8 Guide</uri> for very specific
561informations to enable UTF-8 on your system.
562</p>
563
564<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
565Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
566Tools</uri>.
567</p>
568
569</body>
570</subsection>
571<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
517<title>Configuring the Console</title> 572<title>Configuring the Console</title>
518<body> 573<body>
519 574
520<note>
521The following section applies to the IBM PPC64 hardware platforms.
522</note>
523
524<p> 575<p>
525If you are running Gentoo on IBM PPC64 hardware and using a virtual console 576If you are using a virtual console, you must uncomment the appropriate line in
526you must uncomment the appropriate line in <path>/etc/inittab</path> for the 577<path>/etc/inittab</path> for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
527virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
528</p> 578</p>
529 579
530<pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab"> 580<pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab">
531hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0 581hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0
532hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0 582hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0

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