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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.34 2004/06/03 20:58:34 neysx Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.72 2005/08/15 09:00:27 swift Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10
11<version>2.13</version>
12<date>2005-08-15</date>
13
10<section> 14<section>
11<title>Filesystem Information</title> 15<title>Filesystem Information</title>
12<subsection> 16<subsection>
13<title>What is fstab?</title> 17<title>What is fstab?</title>
14<body> 18<body>
15 19
16<p> 20<p>
17Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in 21Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
18<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions 22<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
19(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted 23(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
20(special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not, 24and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
21etc.). 25them or not, etc.)
22</p> 26</p>
23 27
24</body> 28</body>
25</subsection> 29</subsection>
26<subsection> 30<subsection>
46 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition 50 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
47</li> 51</li>
48<li> 52<li>
49 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it 53 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
50 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions, 54 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
51 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full 55 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
52 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated. 56 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
53</li> 57</li>
54<li> 58<li>
55 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 59 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
56 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 60 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
57</li> 61</li>
58<li> 62<li>
59 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which 63 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
60 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly. 64 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
61 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> 65 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
62 (or <c>0</c> in case a filesystem check isn't necessary). 66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
63</li> 67</li>
64</ul> 68</ul>
65 69
66<p> 70<p>
71The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab
67So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 72file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
68<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 73<path>/etc/fstab</path>:
69</p> 74</p>
70 75
71<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 76<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
72# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 77# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
78<path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim. 83<path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim.
79</p> 84</p>
80 85
81<p> 86<p>
82In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the 87In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
83<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. It shouldn't 88<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
84be mounted automatically (<c>noauto</c>) but does need to be checked. So we 89It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
85would write down:
86</p> 90</p>
87 91
88<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 92<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
89/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto 1 2 93/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
94</pre>
95
96<p>
97Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
98automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
99substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
100manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
90</pre> 101</p>
91 102
92<p> 103<p>
93Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c> 104Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
94option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times 105option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
95aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway): 106aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
96</p> 107</p>
97 108
98<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 109<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
99/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 110/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
100</pre> 111</pre>
101 112
102<p> 113<p>
103If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for 114If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
104<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition): 115<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
105</p> 116</p>
106 117
107<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines"> 118<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
108/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 119/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
109/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 120/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
110/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 121/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
111</pre> 122</pre>
112 123
113<p> 124<p>
115(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other 126(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
116partitions or drives, for those too): 127partitions or drives, for those too):
117</p> 128</p>
118 129
119<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example"> 130<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
120/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 131/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
121/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 132/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
122/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 133/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
123 134
124none /proc proc defaults 0 0 135none /proc proc defaults 0 0
125none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0 136none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
126 137
127/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 138/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
128</pre> 139</pre>
129 140
130<p> 141<p>
140too: 151too:
141</p> 152</p>
142 153
143<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab"> 154<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
144none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0 155none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
145</pre>
146
147<p>
148If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
149</p>
150
151<pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
152none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
153</pre> 156</pre>
154 157
155<p> 158<p>
156Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 159Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
157</p> 160</p>
176<p> 179<p>
177We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname: 180We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
178</p> 181</p>
179 182
180<pre caption="Setting the hostname"> 183<pre caption="Setting the hostname">
181# <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i> 184# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
185
186<comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your hostname)</comment>
187HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>"
182</pre> 188</pre>
183 189
184<p> 190<p>
185Second we set the domainname: 191Second we set the domainname:
186</p> 192</p>
187 193
188<pre caption="Setting the domainname"> 194<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
189# <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i> 195# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i>
196
197<comment>(Set the DNSDOMAIN variable to your domain name)</comment>
198DNSDOMAIN="<i>homenetwork</i>"
190</pre> 199</pre>
191 200
192<p> 201<p>
193If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have 202If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
194one), you need to define that one too: 203one), you need to define that one too:
195</p> 204</p>
196 205
197<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname"> 206<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
198# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i> 207# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i>
208
209<comment>(Set the NISDOMAIN variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
210NISDOMAIN="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
199</pre> 211</pre>
200 212
201<p> 213<p>
202Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel: 214Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel:
203</p> 215</p>
212<title>Configuring your Network</title> 224<title>Configuring your Network</title>
213<body> 225<body>
214 226
215<p> 227<p>
216Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember 228Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
217that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was 229that the networking you set up in the beginning of the Gentoo installation was
218just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for 230just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
219your Gentoo system permanently. 231your Gentoo system permanently.
220</p> 232</p>
221 233
234<note>
235More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
236bonding, bridging, 802.1Q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
237link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
238</note>
239
222<p> 240<p>
223All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 241All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
224a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup 242a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
225networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :) 243networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
226</p> 244commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
227 245<path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>.
228<p> 246</p>
247
248<p>
249DHCP is used by default and does not require any further configuration.
250</p>
251
252<p>
253If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
254specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
229First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> 255<path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> is used in
230is used in this example): 256this example):
231</p> 257</p>
232 258
233<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing"> 259<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
234# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i> 260# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
235</pre> 261</pre>
236 262
237<p> 263<p>
238The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following 264You will see the following file:
239syntax:
240</p>
241
242<pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
243iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
244</pre>
245
246<p> 265</p>
247If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 266
248to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>. 267<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
249If you need to setup your network manually and you're 268# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
250not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 269# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
251link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network 270# please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration
252Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already. 271# in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
272</pre>
273
253</p> 274<p>
254 275To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
276to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
255<p> 277</p>
256So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static 278
257IP (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and 279<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
258gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for 280config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0" )
259rp-pppoe usage: 281routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" )
282</pre>
283
260</p> 284<p>
261 285To use DHCP and add specific DHCP options, define <c>config_eth0</c> and
262<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net"> 286<c>dhcp_eth0</c>:
263<comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
264iface_eth0="dhcp"
265
266<comment>(For static IP)</comment>
267iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
268gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
269
270<comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
271iface_eth0="up"
272</pre>
273
274<p> 287</p>
275If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables, 288
276like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable 289<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
277shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer. 290config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
291dhcp_eth0="nodns nontp nonis"
292</pre>
293
294<p>
295Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available
296options.
297</p>
298
299<p>
300If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
301<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
278</p> 302</p>
279 303
280<p> 304<p>
281Now save the configuration and exit to continue. 305Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
282</p> 306</p>
286<subsection> 310<subsection>
287<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 311<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
288<body> 312<body>
289 313
290<p> 314<p>
291To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the 315To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
292default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 316default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
293the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script. 317the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
294</p> 318</p>
295 319
296<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 320<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
335192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux 359192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
336</pre> 360</pre>
337 361
338<p> 362<p>
339If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name 363If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
340resolution) a single line is sufficient: 364resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
365system <c>tux</c>:
341</p> 366</p>
342 367
343<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs"> 368<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
344127.0.0.1 localhost 369127.0.0.1 localhost tux
345</pre> 370</pre>
346 371
347<p> 372<p>
348Save and exit the editor to continue. 373Save and exit the editor to continue.
349</p> 374</p>
363<note> 388<note>
364pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms. 389pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
365</note> 390</note>
366 391
367<p> 392<p>
368PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. The 393PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
369<c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary to avoid installing XFree86 at this moment: 394includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
395using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
396to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
370</p> 397</p>
371 398
372<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 399<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
373# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i> 400# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
374</pre> 401</pre>
385</body> 412</body>
386</subsection> 413</subsection>
387</section> 414</section>
388<section> 415<section>
389<title>System Information</title> 416<title>System Information</title>
417<subsection>
418<title>Root Password</title>
419<body>
420
421<p>
422First we set the root password by typing:
423</p>
424
425<pre caption="Setting the root password">
426# <i>passwd</i>
427</pre>
428
429<p>
430If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
431<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
432</p>
433
434<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
435# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
436</pre>
437
438</body>
439</subsection>
440<subsection>
441<title>System Information</title>
390<body> 442<body>
391 443
392<p> 444<p>
393Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 445Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
394Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :) 446Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
397<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf"> 449<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
398# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 450# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
399</pre> 451</pre>
400 452
401<p> 453<p>
454When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit.
455</p>
456
457<p>
402As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary 458As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
403configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if 459configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
404you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on 460define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
405your keyboard. 461</p>
462
463<p>
464Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
465Edit it to configure your keyboard.
466</p>
467
468<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
469# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
470</pre>
471
472<p>
473Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong
474<c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
406</p> 475</p>
407 476
408<note> 477<note>
409Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to 478Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
410select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap". 479select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap". <b>PPC</b> uses x86
480keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB keymaps on boot
481have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to set a mac/ppc
482keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
411</note> 483</note>
412 484
413<p> 485<p>
414<b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use 486When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
415ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have 487exit.
416to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
417</p>
418
419<p> 488</p>
420When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then 489
421continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>.
422</p> 490<p>
491Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
492according to your needs.
493</p>
423 494
495<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock">
496# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
497</pre>
498
499<p>
500If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> to
501the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
502</p>
503
504<p>
505When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and
506exit.
507</p>
508
509<p>
510If you are not installing Gentoo on IBM PPC64 hardware, continue with
511<uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System Tools</uri>.
512</p>
513
514</body>
515</subsection>
516<subsection>
517<title>Configuring the Console</title>
424</body> 518<body>
519
520<note>
521The following section applies to the IBM PPC64 hardware platforms.
522</note>
523
524<p>
525If you are running Gentoo on IBM PPC64 hardware and using a virtual console
526you must uncomment the appropriate line in <path>/etc/inittab</path> for the
527virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
528</p>
529
530<pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab">
531hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0
532hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0
533</pre>
534
535<p>
536You should also take this time to verify that the appropriate console is
537listed in <path>/etc/securetty</path>.
538</p>
539
540<p>
541You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
542System Tools</uri>.
543</p>
544
545</body>
546</subsection>
425</section> 547</section>
426</sections> 548</sections>

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