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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.37 2004/07/26 09:04:42 dertobi123 Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.76 2006/03/28 10:35:59 neysx Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10
11<version>2.18</version>
12<date>2006-03-28</date>
13
10<section> 14<section>
11<title>Filesystem Information</title> 15<title>Filesystem Information</title>
12<subsection> 16<subsection>
13<title>What is fstab?</title> 17<title>What is fstab?</title>
14<body> 18<body>
15 19
16<p> 20<p>
17Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in 21Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
18<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions 22<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
19(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted 23(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
20(special options) and when (automatically or not, can users mount those or not, 24and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
21etc.). 25them or not, etc.)
22</p> 26</p>
23 27
24</body> 28</body>
25</subsection> 29</subsection>
26<subsection> 30<subsection>
46 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition 50 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
47</li> 51</li>
48<li> 52<li>
49 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it 53 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
50 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions, 54 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
51 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full 55 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
52 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated. 56 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
53</li> 57</li>
54<li> 58<li>
55 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 59 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
56 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 60 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
57</li> 61</li>
58<li> 62<li>
59 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which 63 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
60 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly. 64 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
61 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> 65 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
62 (or <c>0</c> in case a filesystem check isn't necessary). 66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
63</li> 67</li>
64</ul> 68</ul>
65 69
66<p> 70<p>
71The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab
67So start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 72file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
68<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 73<path>/etc/fstab</path>:
69</p> 74</p>
70 75
71<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 76<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
72# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 77# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
73</pre> 78</pre>
74 79
75<p> 80<p>
76Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 81Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
77partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a 82partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
78<path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim. 83<path>/boot</path> partition (such as Apple <b>PPC</b> machines), don't copy it
84verbatim.
79</p> 85</p>
80 86
81<p> 87<p>
82In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the 88In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
83<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. 89<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
88/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2 94/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
89</pre> 95</pre>
90 96
91<p> 97<p>
92Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted 98Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
93automatically. Those people should substitute <c>defaults</c> with 99automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
94<c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to manually mount this partition 100substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
95every time you want to use it. 101manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
96</p> 102</p>
97 103
98<p> 104<p>
99Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c> 105Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
100option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times 106option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
101aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway): 107aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
102</p> 108</p>
103 109
104<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 110<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
105/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 111/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
106</pre> 112</pre>
107 113
108<p> 114<p>
109If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for 115If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
110<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition): 116<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
111</p> 117</p>
112 118
113<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines"> 119<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
114/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 120/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
115/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 121/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
116/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 122/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
117</pre> 123</pre>
118 124
119<p> 125<p>
121(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other 127(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
122partitions or drives, for those too): 128partitions or drives, for those too):
123</p> 129</p>
124 130
125<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example"> 131<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
126/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 132/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
127/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 133/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
128/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 134/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
129 135
130none /proc proc defaults 0 0 136none /proc proc defaults 0 0
131none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0 137none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
132 138
133/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 139/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
134</pre> 140</pre>
135 141
136<p> 142<p>
146too: 152too:
147</p> 153</p>
148 154
149<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab"> 155<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
150none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0 156none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
151</pre>
152
153<p>
154If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
155</p>
156
157<pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
158none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
159</pre> 157</pre>
160 158
161<p> 159<p>
162Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 160Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
163</p> 161</p>
182<p> 180<p>
183We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname: 181We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
184</p> 182</p>
185 183
186<pre caption="Setting the hostname"> 184<pre caption="Setting the hostname">
187# <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i> 185# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
186
187<comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your hostname)</comment>
188HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>"
188</pre> 189</pre>
189 190
190<p> 191<p>
191Second we set the domainname: 192Second we set the domainname:
192</p> 193</p>
193 194
194<pre caption="Setting the domainname"> 195<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
195# <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i> 196# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i>
197
198<comment>(Set the DNSDOMAIN variable to your domain name)</comment>
199DNSDOMAIN="<i>homenetwork</i>"
196</pre> 200</pre>
197 201
198<p> 202<p>
199If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have 203If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
200one), you need to define that one too: 204one), you need to define that one too:
201</p> 205</p>
202 206
203<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname"> 207<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
204# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i> 208# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i>
205</pre>
206 209
207<p> 210<comment>(Set the NISDOMAIN variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
208Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel: 211NISDOMAIN="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
209</p>
210
211<pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel">
212# <i>rc-update add domainname default</i>
213</pre> 212</pre>
214 213
215</body> 214</body>
216</subsection> 215</subsection>
217<subsection> 216<subsection>
218<title>Configuring your Network</title> 217<title>Configuring your Network</title>
219<body> 218<body>
220 219
221<p> 220<p>
222Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember 221Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
223that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was 222that the networking you set up in the beginning of the Gentoo installation was
224just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for 223just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
225your Gentoo system permanently. 224your Gentoo system permanently.
226</p> 225</p>
227 226
227<note>
228More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
229bonding, bridging, 802.1Q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
230link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
231</note>
232
228<p> 233<p>
229All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 234All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
230a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup 235a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
231networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :) 236networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
232</p> 237commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
233 238<path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>.
234<p> 239</p>
240
241<p>
242DHCP is used by default and does not require any further configuration.
243</p>
244
245<p>
246If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
247specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
235First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> 248<path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> is used in
236is used in this example): 249this example):
237</p> 250</p>
238 251
239<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing"> 252<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
240# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i> 253# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
241</pre> 254</pre>
242 255
243<p> 256<p>
244The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following 257You will see the following file:
245syntax:
246</p>
247
248<pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
249iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
250</pre>
251
252<p> 258</p>
253If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 259
254to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>. 260<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
255If you need to setup your network manually and you're 261# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
256not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 262# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
257link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#doc_chap4_sect3">Understanding Network 263# please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration
258Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already. 264# in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
265</pre>
266
259</p> 267<p>
260 268To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
269to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
261<p> 270</p>
262So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static 271
263IP (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and 272<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
264gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for 273config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" )
265rp-pppoe usage: 274routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" )
275</pre>
276
266</p> 277<p>
267 278To use DHCP and add specific DHCP options, define <c>config_eth0</c> and
268<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net"> 279<c>dhcp_eth0</c>:
269<comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
270iface_eth0="dhcp"
271<comment>Some network admins require that you use the</comment>
272<comment>hostname and domainname provided by the DHCP server.</comment>
273<comment>In that case, add the following to let dhcpcd use them.</comment>
274<comment>That will override your own hostname and domainname definitions.</comment>
275dhcpcd_eth0="-HD"
276<comment>If you intend on using NTP to keep your machine clock synchronized, use</comment>
277<comment>the -N option to prevent dhcpcd from overwriting your /etc/ntp.conf file</comment>
278dhcpcd_eth0="-N"
279
280<comment>(For static IP)</comment>
281iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
282gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
283
284<comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
285iface_eth0="up"
286</pre>
287
288<p> 280</p>
289If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables, 281
290like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable 282<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
291shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer. 283config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
284dhcp_eth0="nodns nontp nonis"
285</pre>
286
287<p>
288Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available
289options.
290</p>
291
292<p>
293If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
294<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
292</p> 295</p>
293 296
294<p> 297<p>
295Now save the configuration and exit to continue. 298Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
296</p> 299</p>
300<subsection> 303<subsection>
301<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title> 304<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
302<body> 305<body>
303 306
304<p> 307<p>
305To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add those to the 308To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
306default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as 309default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
307the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script. 310the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
308</p> 311</p>
309 312
310<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel"> 313<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
349192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux 352192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
350</pre> 353</pre>
351 354
352<p> 355<p>
353If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name 356If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
354resolution) a single line is sufficient: 357resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
358system <c>tux</c>:
355</p> 359</p>
356 360
357<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs"> 361<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
358127.0.0.1 localhost 362127.0.0.1 localhost tux
359</pre> 363</pre>
360 364
361<p> 365<p>
362Save and exit the editor to continue. 366Save and exit the editor to continue.
363</p> 367</p>
377<note> 381<note>
378pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms. 382pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
379</note> 383</note>
380 384
381<p> 385<p>
382PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. The 386PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
387includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
388using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
383<c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment: 389to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
384</p> 390</p>
385 391
386<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 392<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
387# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i> 393# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
388</pre> 394</pre>
399</body> 405</body>
400</subsection> 406</subsection>
401</section> 407</section>
402<section> 408<section>
403<title>System Information</title> 409<title>System Information</title>
410<subsection>
411<title>Root Password</title>
412<body>
413
414<p>
415First we set the root password by typing:
416</p>
417
418<pre caption="Setting the root password">
419# <i>passwd</i>
420</pre>
421
422<p>
423If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
424<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
425</p>
426
427<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
428# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
429</pre>
430
431</body>
432</subsection>
433<subsection>
434<title>System Information</title>
404<body> 435<body>
405 436
406<p> 437<p>
407Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration. 438Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
408Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :) 439Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
411<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf"> 442<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
412# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 443# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
413</pre> 444</pre>
414 445
415<p> 446<p>
447When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit.
448</p>
449
450<p>
416As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary 451As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
417configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if 452configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
418you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on 453define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
419your keyboard. 454</p>
455
456<p>
457Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
458Edit it to configure your keyboard.
459</p>
460
461<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
462# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
463</pre>
464
465<p>
466Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong
467<c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
420</p> 468</p>
421 469
422<note> 470<note>
423Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to 471Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
424select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap". 472select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap". <b>PPC</b> uses x86
473keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB keymaps on boot
474have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to set a mac/ppc
475keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
425</note> 476</note>
426 477
427<p> 478<p>
428<b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use 479When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
429ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have 480exit.
430to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
431</p>
432
433<p> 481</p>
434When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then 482
435continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Configuring the Bootloader</uri>.
436</p> 483<p>
484Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
485according to your needs.
486</p>
437 487
488<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock">
489# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
490</pre>
491
492<p>
493If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> to
494the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew. Furthermore, Windows
495assumes that your hardware clock uses local time, so if you want to dualboot,
496you should set this variable appropriately, otherwise your clock will go crazy.
497</p>
498
499<p>
500When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and
501exit.
502</p>
503
504<p>
505If you are not installing Gentoo on IBM PPC64 hardware, continue with
506<uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System Tools</uri>.
507</p>
508
509</body>
510</subsection>
511<subsection>
512<title>Configuring the Console</title>
438</body> 513<body>
514
515<note>
516The following section applies to the IBM PPC64 hardware platforms.
517</note>
518
519<p>
520If you are running Gentoo on IBM PPC64 hardware and using a virtual console
521you must uncomment the appropriate line in <path>/etc/inittab</path> for the
522virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
523</p>
524
525<pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab">
526hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0
527hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0
528</pre>
529
530<p>
531You should also take this time to verify that the appropriate console is
532listed in <path>/etc/securetty</path>.
533</p>
534
535<p>
536You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
537System Tools</uri>.
538</p>
539
540</body>
541</subsection>
439</section> 542</section>
440</sections> 543</sections>

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