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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.45 2004/08/30 17:44:00 neysx Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.76 2006/03/28 10:35:59 neysx Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10
11<version>2.18</version>
12<date>2006-03-28</date>
13
10<section> 14<section>
11<title>Filesystem Information</title> 15<title>Filesystem Information</title>
12<subsection> 16<subsection>
13<title>What is fstab?</title> 17<title>What is fstab?</title>
14<body> 18<body>
46 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition 50 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
47</li> 51</li>
48<li> 52<li>
49 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it 53 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
50 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions, 54 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
51 you are encouraged to read the mount manpage (<c>man mount</c>) for a full 55 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
52 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated. 56 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
53</li> 57</li>
54<li> 58<li>
55 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 59 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
56 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 60 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
74</pre> 78</pre>
75 79
76<p> 80<p>
77Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 81Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
78partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a 82partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
79<path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim. 83<path>/boot</path> partition (such as Apple <b>PPC</b> machines), don't copy it
84verbatim.
80</p> 85</p>
81 86
82<p> 87<p>
83In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the 88In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
84<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. 89<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
122(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other 127(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
123partitions or drives, for those too): 128partitions or drives, for those too):
124</p> 129</p>
125 130
126<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example"> 131<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
127/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 noauto,noatime 1 2 132/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
128/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 133/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
129/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 134/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
130 135
131none /proc proc defaults 0 0 136none /proc proc defaults 0 0
132none /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0 137none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
133 138
134/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 139/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
135</pre> 140</pre>
136 141
137<p> 142<p>
147too: 152too:
148</p> 153</p>
149 154
150<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab"> 155<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
151none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0 156none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
152</pre>
153
154<p>
155If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
156</p>
157
158<pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
159none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
160</pre> 157</pre>
161 158
162<p> 159<p>
163Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 160Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
164</p> 161</p>
183<p> 180<p>
184We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname: 181We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
185</p> 182</p>
186 183
187<pre caption="Setting the hostname"> 184<pre caption="Setting the hostname">
188# <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i> 185# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
186
187<comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your hostname)</comment>
188HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>"
189</pre> 189</pre>
190 190
191<p> 191<p>
192Second we set the domainname: 192Second we set the domainname:
193</p> 193</p>
194 194
195<pre caption="Setting the domainname"> 195<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
196# <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i> 196# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i>
197
198<comment>(Set the DNSDOMAIN variable to your domain name)</comment>
199DNSDOMAIN="<i>homenetwork</i>"
197</pre> 200</pre>
198 201
199<p> 202<p>
200If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have 203If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
201one), you need to define that one too: 204one), you need to define that one too:
202</p> 205</p>
203 206
204<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname"> 207<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
205# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i> 208# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i>
206</pre>
207 209
208<p> 210<comment>(Set the NISDOMAIN variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
209Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel: 211NISDOMAIN="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
210</p>
211
212<pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel">
213# <i>rc-update add domainname default</i>
214</pre> 212</pre>
215 213
216</body> 214</body>
217</subsection> 215</subsection>
218<subsection> 216<subsection>
219<title>Configuring your Network</title> 217<title>Configuring your Network</title>
220<body> 218<body>
221 219
222<p> 220<p>
223Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember 221Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
224that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was 222that the networking you set up in the beginning of the Gentoo installation was
225just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for 223just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
226your Gentoo system permanently. 224your Gentoo system permanently.
227</p> 225</p>
228 226
227<note>
228More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
229bonding, bridging, 802.1Q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
230link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
231</note>
232
229<p> 233<p>
230All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 234All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
231a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to setup 235a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
232networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :) 236networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
233</p> 237commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
234 238<path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>.
235<p> 239</p>
240
241<p>
242DHCP is used by default and does not require any further configuration.
243</p>
244
245<p>
246If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
247specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
236First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> 248<path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> is used in
237is used in this example): 249this example):
238</p> 250</p>
239 251
240<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing"> 252<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
241# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i> 253# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
242</pre> 254</pre>
243 255
244<p> 256<p>
245The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following 257You will see the following file:
246syntax:
247</p>
248
249<pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
250iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
251</pre>
252
253<p> 258</p>
254If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 259
255to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>. 260<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
256If you need to setup your network manually and you're 261# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
257not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 262# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
258link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#network_term">Understanding Network 263# please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration
259Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already. 264# in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
265</pre>
266
260</p> 267<p>
261 268To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
269to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
262<p> 270</p>
263So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static 271
264IP (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and 272<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
265gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for 273config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" )
266rp-pppoe usage: 274routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" )
275</pre>
276
267</p> 277<p>
268 278To use DHCP and add specific DHCP options, define <c>config_eth0</c> and
269<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net"> 279<c>dhcp_eth0</c>:
270<comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
271iface_eth0="dhcp"
272<comment># Some network admins require that you use the</comment>
273<comment># hostname and domainname provided by the DHCP server.</comment>
274<comment># In that case, add the following to let dhcpcd use them.</comment>
275<comment># That will override your own hostname and domainname definitions.</comment>
276dhcpcd_eth0="-HD"
277<comment># If you intend on using NTP to keep your machine clock synchronized, use</comment>
278<comment># the -N option to prevent dhcpcd from overwriting your /etc/ntp.conf file</comment>
279dhcpcd_eth0="-N"
280
281<comment>(For static IP)</comment>
282iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
283gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
284
285<comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
286iface_eth0="up"
287</pre>
288
289<p> 280</p>
290If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables, 281
291like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable 282<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
292shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer. 283config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
284dhcp_eth0="nodns nontp nonis"
285</pre>
286
287<p>
288Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available
289options.
290</p>
291
292<p>
293If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
294<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
293</p> 295</p>
294 296
295<p> 297<p>
296Now save the configuration and exit to continue. 298Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
297</p> 299</p>
351</pre> 353</pre>
352 354
353<p> 355<p>
354If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name 356If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
355resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your 357resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
356system <c>tux.homenetwork</c>: 358system <c>tux</c>:
357</p> 359</p>
358 360
359<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs"> 361<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
360127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost 362127.0.0.1 localhost tux
361</pre> 363</pre>
362 364
363<p> 365<p>
364Save and exit the editor to continue. 366Save and exit the editor to continue.
365</p> 367</p>
379<note> 381<note>
380pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms. 382pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
381</note> 383</note>
382 384
383<p> 385<p>
384PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. The 386PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
387includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
388using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
385<c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment: 389to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
386</p> 390</p>
387 391
388<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs"> 392<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
389# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i> 393# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
390</pre> 394</pre>
438<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf"> 442<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
439# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 443# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
440</pre> 444</pre>
441 445
442<p> 446<p>
447When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit.
448</p>
449
450<p>
443As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary 451As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
444configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if 452configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
445you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on 453define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
446your keyboard. 454</p>
455
456<p>
457Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
458Edit it to configure your keyboard.
459</p>
460
461<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
462# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
463</pre>
464
465<p>
466Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong
467<c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
447</p> 468</p>
448 469
449<note> 470<note>
450Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to 471Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
451select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap". 472select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap". <b>PPC</b> uses x86
473keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB keymaps on boot
474have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to set a mac/ppc
475keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
452</note> 476</note>
453 477
454<p> 478<p>
455<b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use 479When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
456ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have 480exit.
457to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
458</p>
459
460<p> 481</p>
482
483<p>
484Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
485according to your needs.
486</p>
487
488<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock">
489# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
490</pre>
491
492<p>
493If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> to
494the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew. Furthermore, Windows
495assumes that your hardware clock uses local time, so if you want to dualboot,
496you should set this variable appropriately, otherwise your clock will go crazy.
497</p>
498
499<p>
461When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then 500When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and
501exit.
502</p>
503
504<p>
505If you are not installing Gentoo on IBM PPC64 hardware, continue with
506<uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System Tools</uri>.
507</p>
508
509</body>
510</subsection>
511<subsection>
512<title>Configuring the Console</title>
513<body>
514
515<note>
516The following section applies to the IBM PPC64 hardware platforms.
517</note>
518
519<p>
520If you are running Gentoo on IBM PPC64 hardware and using a virtual console
521you must uncomment the appropriate line in <path>/etc/inittab</path> for the
522virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
523</p>
524
525<pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab">
526hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0
527hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0
528</pre>
529
530<p>
531You should also take this time to verify that the appropriate console is
532listed in <path>/etc/securetty</path>.
533</p>
534
535<p>
462continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System 536You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
463Tools</uri>. 537System Tools</uri>.
464</p> 538</p>
465 539
466</body> 540</body>
467</subsection> 541</subsection>
468</section> 542</section>

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