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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.78 2006/05/27 13:02:15 neysx Exp $ -->
8
1<sections> 9<sections>
2<section>
3<title>Timezone</title>
4<body>
5 10
6<p> 11<version>2.19</version>
7<path>/etc/localtime</path>. 12<date>2006-05-27</date>
8</p>
9 13
10</body>
11</section>
12<section> 14<section>
13<title>Filesystem Information</title> 15<title>Filesystem Information</title>
16<subsection>
17<title>What is fstab?</title>
18<body>
19
20<p>
21Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
22<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions
23(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
24and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
25them or not, etc.)
26</p>
27
14<body> 28</body>
29</subsection>
30<subsection>
31<title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
32<body>
15 33
34<p>
35<path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
36fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
37its own meaning:
16<p> 38</p>
39
40<ul>
41<li>
42 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
43 file)
44</li>
45<li>
46 The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be
47 mounted
48</li>
49<li>
50 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
51</li>
52<li>
53 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
54 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions,
55 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
56 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated.
57</li>
58<li>
59 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
60 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
61</li>
62<li>
63 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
64 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
65 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
67</li>
68</ul>
69
70<p>
71The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
72fstab file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
73<path>/etc/fstab</path>:
74</p>
75
76<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
77# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
78</pre>
79
80<p>
81Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
82partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
83<path>/boot</path> partition (such as Apple <b>PPC</b> machines), don't copy it
84verbatim.
85</p>
86
87<p>
88In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
89<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
90It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
91</p>
92
93<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
94/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
95</pre>
96
97<p>
98Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
99automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
100substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
101manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
102</p>
103
104<p>
105Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
106option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
107aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
108</p>
109
110<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab">
111/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
112</pre>
113
114<p>
115If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for
116<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
117</p>
118
119<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
120/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
121/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
122/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
123</pre>
124
125<p>
126To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
127(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
128partitions or drives, for those too):
129</p>
130
131<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example">
132/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
133/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
134/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
135
136none /proc proc defaults 0 0
137none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
138
139/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
140</pre>
141
142<p>
143<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
144removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
145<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
146</p>
147
148<p>
149Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a
150<b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your
17<path>/etc/fstab</path> 151<path>/etc/fstab</path>
152too:
153</p>
154
155<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
156none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
157</pre>
158
18</p> 159<p>
160Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
161</p>
19 162
20</body> 163</body>
164</subsection>
21</section> 165</section>
22<section> 166<section>
23<title>Networking Information</title> 167<title>Networking Information</title>
24<body> 168<subsection>
25 169<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title>
26<p>
27<path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>, <c>rc-update add net.eth0</c>,
28PCMCIA-information etc.
29</p>
30
31</body> 170<body>
171
172<p>
173One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
174quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
175appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
176choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
177<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
178</p>
179
180<p>
181We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
182</p>
183
184<pre caption="Setting the hostname">
185# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
186
187<comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your hostname)</comment>
188HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>"
189</pre>
190
191<p>
192Second we set the domainname:
193</p>
194
195<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
196# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i>
197
198<comment>(Set the DNSDOMAIN variable to your domain name)</comment>
199DNSDOMAIN="<i>homenetwork</i>"
200</pre>
201
202<p>
203If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
204one), you need to define that one too:
205</p>
206
207<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
208# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i>
209
210<comment>(Set the NISDOMAIN variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
211NISDOMAIN="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
212</pre>
213
214</body>
215</subsection>
216<subsection>
217<title>Configuring your Network</title>
218<body>
219
220<p>
221Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
222that the networking you set up in the beginning of the Gentoo installation was
223just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
224your Gentoo system permanently.
225</p>
226
227<note>
228More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
229bonding, bridging, 802.1Q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
230link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
231</note>
232
233<p>
234All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
235a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
236networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
237commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
238<path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>.
239</p>
240
241<p>
242DHCP is used by default and does not require any further configuration.
243</p>
244
245<p>
246If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
247specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
248<path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> is used in
249this example):
250</p>
251
252<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
253# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
254</pre>
255
256<p>
257You will see the following file:
258</p>
259
260<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
261# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
262# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
263# please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration
264# in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
265</pre>
266
267<p>
268To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
269to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
270</p>
271
272<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
273config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" )
274routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" )
275</pre>
276
277<p>
278To use DHCP and add specific DHCP options, define <c>config_eth0</c> and
279<c>dhcp_eth0</c>:
280</p>
281
282<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
283config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
284dhcp_eth0="nodns nontp nonis"
285</pre>
286
287<p>
288Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available
289options.
290</p>
291
292<p>
293If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
294<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
295</p>
296
297<p>
298Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
299</p>
300
301</body>
302</subsection>
303<subsection>
304<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
305<body>
306
307<p>
308To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
309default runlevel. If you have PCMCIA interfaces you should skip this action as
310the PCMCIA interfaces are started by the PCMCIA init script.
311</p>
312
313<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
314# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
315</pre>
316
317<p>
318If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
319<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
320use <c>ln</c> to do this:
321</p>
322
323<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
324# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
325# <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i>
326# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
327</pre>
328
329</body>
330</subsection>
331<subsection>
332<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
333<body>
334
335<p>
336You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
337<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses for
338hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. You need to define your system.
339You may also want to define other systems on your network if you don't want to
340set up your own internal DNS system.
341</p>
342
343<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
344# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
345</pre>
346
347<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
348<comment>(This defines the current system)</comment>
349127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
350
351<comment>(Define extra systems on your network,
352they need to have a static IP to be defined this way.)</comment>
353192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
354192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
355</pre>
356
357<p>
358Save and exit the editor to continue.
359</p>
360
361<p>
362If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
363link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
364following topic on PCMCIA.
365</p>
366
367</body>
368</subsection>
369<subsection>
370<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
371<body>
372
373<note>
374pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
375</note>
376
377<p>
378PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
379includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
380using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
381to avoid installing xorg-x11 at this moment:
382</p>
383
384<pre caption="Installing pcmcia-cs">
385# <i>USE="-X" emerge pcmcia-cs</i>
386</pre>
387
388<p>
389When <c>pcmcia-cs</c> is installed, add <c>pcmcia</c> to the <e>default</e>
390runlevel:
391</p>
392
393<pre caption="Adding pcmcia to the default runlevel">
394# <i>rc-update add pcmcia default</i>
395</pre>
396
397</body>
398</subsection>
32</section> 399</section>
33<section> 400<section>
34<title>System Information</title> 401<title>System Information</title>
35<body> 402<subsection>
36 403<title>Root Password</title>
37<p>
38<path>/etc/rc.conf</path>
39</p>
40
41</body> 404<body>
405
406<p>
407First we set the root password by typing:
408</p>
409
410<pre caption="Setting the root password">
411# <i>passwd</i>
412</pre>
413
414<p>
415If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
416<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
417</p>
418
419<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
420# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
421</pre>
422
423</body>
424</subsection>
425<subsection>
426<title>System Information</title>
427<body>
428
429<p>
430Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
431Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
432</p>
433
434<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
435# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
436</pre>
437
438<p>
439When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit.
440</p>
441
442<p>
443As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
444configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
445define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
446</p>
447
448<p>
449Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
450Edit it to configure your keyboard.
451</p>
452
453<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
454# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
455</pre>
456
457<p>
458Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong
459<c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
460</p>
461
462<note>
463Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
464select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap". <b>PPC</b> uses x86
465keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB keymaps on boot
466have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to set a mac/ppc
467keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
468</note>
469
470<p>
471When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
472exit.
473</p>
474
475<p>
476Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
477according to your needs.
478</p>
479
480<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock">
481# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
482</pre>
483
484<p>
485If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> to
486the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew. Furthermore, Windows
487assumes that your hardware clock uses local time, so if you want to dualboot,
488you should set this variable appropriately, otherwise your clock will go crazy.
489</p>
490
491<p>
492When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and
493exit.
494</p>
495
496<p>
497If you are not installing Gentoo on IBM PPC64 hardware, continue with
498<uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System Tools</uri>.
499</p>
500
501</body>
502</subsection>
503<subsection>
504<title>Configuring the Console</title>
505<body>
506
507<note>
508The following section applies to the IBM PPC64 hardware platforms.
509</note>
510
511<p>
512If you are running Gentoo on IBM PPC64 hardware and using a virtual console
513you must uncomment the appropriate line in <path>/etc/inittab</path> for the
514virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
515</p>
516
517<pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab">
518hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0
519hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0
520</pre>
521
522<p>
523You should also take this time to verify that the appropriate console is
524listed in <path>/etc/securetty</path>.
525</p>
526
527<p>
528You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
529System Tools</uri>.
530</p>
531
532</body>
533</subsection>
42</section> 534</section>
43</sections> 535</sections>

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