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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.54 2004/12/26 14:17:25 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.78 2006/05/27 13:02:15 neysx Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<version>1.51</version> 11<version>2.19</version>
12<date>2004-12-26</date> 12<date>2006-05-27</date>
13 13
14<section> 14<section>
15<title>Filesystem Information</title> 15<title>Filesystem Information</title>
16<subsection> 16<subsection>
17<title>What is fstab?</title> 17<title>What is fstab?</title>
66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary). 66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
67</li> 67</li>
68</ul> 68</ul>
69 69
70<p> 70<p>
71The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab 71The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
72file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 72fstab file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
73<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 73<path>/etc/fstab</path>:
74</p> 74</p>
75 75
76<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 76<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
77# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 77# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
78</pre> 78</pre>
79 79
80<p> 80<p>
81Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 81Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
82partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a 82partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
83<path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim. 83<path>/boot</path> partition (such as Apple <b>PPC</b> machines), don't copy it
84verbatim.
84</p> 85</p>
85 86
86<p> 87<p>
87In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the 88In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
88<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. 89<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
151too: 152too:
152</p> 153</p>
153 154
154<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab"> 155<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
155none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0 156none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
156</pre>
157
158<p>
159If you need <c>usbfs</c>, add the following line to <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
160</p>
161
162<pre caption="Adding usbfs filesystem to /etc/fstab">
163none /proc/bus/usb usbfs defaults 0 0
164</pre> 157</pre>
165 158
166<p> 159<p>
167Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 160Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
168</p> 161</p>
187<p> 180<p>
188We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname: 181We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
189</p> 182</p>
190 183
191<pre caption="Setting the hostname"> 184<pre caption="Setting the hostname">
192# <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i> 185# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
186
187<comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your hostname)</comment>
188HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>"
193</pre> 189</pre>
194 190
195<p> 191<p>
196Second we set the domainname: 192Second we set the domainname:
197</p> 193</p>
198 194
199<pre caption="Setting the domainname"> 195<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
200# <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i> 196# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i>
197
198<comment>(Set the DNSDOMAIN variable to your domain name)</comment>
199DNSDOMAIN="<i>homenetwork</i>"
201</pre> 200</pre>
202 201
203<p> 202<p>
204If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have 203If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
205one), you need to define that one too: 204one), you need to define that one too:
206</p> 205</p>
207 206
208<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname"> 207<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
209# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i> 208# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i>
210</pre>
211 209
212<p> 210<comment>(Set the NISDOMAIN variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
213Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel: 211NISDOMAIN="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
214</p>
215
216<pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel">
217# <i>rc-update add domainname default</i>
218</pre> 212</pre>
219 213
220</body> 214</body>
221</subsection> 215</subsection>
222<subsection> 216<subsection>
223<title>Configuring your Network</title> 217<title>Configuring your Network</title>
224<body> 218<body>
225 219
226<p> 220<p>
227Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember 221Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
228that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was 222that the networking you set up in the beginning of the Gentoo installation was
229just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for 223just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
230your Gentoo system permanently. 224your Gentoo system permanently.
231</p> 225</p>
232 226
227<note>
228More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
229bonding, bridging, 802.1Q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
230link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
231</note>
232
233<p> 233<p>
234All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 234All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
235a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up 235a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
236networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :) 236networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
237</p> 237commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
238 238<path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>.
239<p> 239</p>
240
241<p>
242DHCP is used by default and does not require any further configuration.
243</p>
244
245<p>
246If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
247specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
240First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> 248<path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> is used in
241is used in this example): 249this example):
242</p> 250</p>
243 251
244<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing"> 252<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
245# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i> 253# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
246</pre> 254</pre>
247 255
248<p> 256<p>
249The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following 257You will see the following file:
250syntax:
251</p>
252
253<pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
254iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
255</pre>
256
257<p> 258</p>
258If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 259
259to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>. 260<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
260If you need to set up your network manually and you're 261# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
261not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 262# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
262link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#network_term">Understanding Network 263# please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration
263Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already. 264# in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
265</pre>
266
264</p> 267<p>
265 268To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
269to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
266<p> 270</p>
267So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static 271
268IP (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and 272<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
269gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for 273config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" )
270rp-pppoe usage: 274routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" )
275</pre>
276
271</p> 277<p>
272 278To use DHCP and add specific DHCP options, define <c>config_eth0</c> and
273<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net"> 279<c>dhcp_eth0</c>:
274<comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
275iface_eth0="dhcp"
276<comment># Some network admins require that you use the</comment>
277<comment># hostname and domainname provided by the DHCP server.</comment>
278<comment># In that case, add the following to let dhcpcd use them.</comment>
279<comment># That will override your own hostname and domainname definitions.</comment>
280dhcpcd_eth0="-HD"
281<comment># If you intend on using NTP to keep your machine clock synchronized, use</comment>
282<comment># the -N option to prevent dhcpcd from overwriting your /etc/ntp.conf file</comment>
283dhcpcd_eth0="-N"
284
285<comment>(For static IP)</comment>
286iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
287gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
288
289<comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
290iface_eth0="up"
291</pre>
292
293<p> 280</p>
294If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables, 281
295like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable 282<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
296shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer. 283config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
284dhcp_eth0="nodns nontp nonis"
285</pre>
286
287<p>
288Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available
289options.
290</p>
291
292<p>
293If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
294<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
297</p> 295</p>
298 296
299<p> 297<p>
300Now save the configuration and exit to continue. 298Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
301</p> 299</p>
334<title>Writing Down Network Information</title> 332<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
335<body> 333<body>
336 334
337<p> 335<p>
338You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in 336You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
339<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses 337<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses for
340for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your 338hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. You need to define your system.
341internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5), 339You may also want to define other systems on your network if you don't want to
342<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would 340set up your own internal DNS system.
343open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
344</p> 341</p>
345 342
346<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts"> 343<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
347# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i> 344# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
348</pre> 345</pre>
349 346
350<pre caption="Filling in the networking information"> 347<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
351127.0.0.1 localhost 348<comment>(This defines the current system)</comment>
349127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
350
351<comment>(Define extra systems on your network,
352they need to have a static IP to be defined this way.)</comment>
352192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny 353192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
353192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny 354192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
354192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
355</pre>
356
357<p>
358If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
359resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
360system <c>tux</c>:
361</p>
362
363<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
364127.0.0.1 localhost tux
365</pre> 355</pre>
366 356
367<p> 357<p>
368Save and exit the editor to continue. 358Save and exit the editor to continue.
369</p> 359</p>
444<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf"> 434<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
445# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 435# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
446</pre> 436</pre>
447 437
448<p> 438<p>
439When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit.
440</p>
441
442<p>
449As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary 443As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
450configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if 444configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
451you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on 445define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
452your keyboard. 446</p>
447
448<p>
449Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
450Edit it to configure your keyboard.
451</p>
452
453<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
454# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
455</pre>
456
457<p>
458Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong
459<c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
453</p> 460</p>
454 461
455<note> 462<note>
456Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to 463Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
457select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap". 464select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap". <b>PPC</b> uses x86
465keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB keymaps on boot
466have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to set a mac/ppc
467keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
458</note> 468</note>
459 469
460<p> 470<p>
461<b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use 471When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
462ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have 472exit.
463to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
464</p>
465
466<p> 473</p>
474
475<p>
476Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
477according to your needs.
478</p>
479
480<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock">
481# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
482</pre>
483
484<p>
485If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> to
486the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew. Furthermore, Windows
487assumes that your hardware clock uses local time, so if you want to dualboot,
488you should set this variable appropriately, otherwise your clock will go crazy.
489</p>
490
491<p>
467When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then 492When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and
493exit.
494</p>
495
496<p>
497If you are not installing Gentoo on IBM PPC64 hardware, continue with
498<uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System Tools</uri>.
499</p>
500
501</body>
502</subsection>
503<subsection>
504<title>Configuring the Console</title>
505<body>
506
507<note>
508The following section applies to the IBM PPC64 hardware platforms.
509</note>
510
511<p>
512If you are running Gentoo on IBM PPC64 hardware and using a virtual console
513you must uncomment the appropriate line in <path>/etc/inittab</path> for the
514virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
515</p>
516
517<pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab">
518hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0
519hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0
520</pre>
521
522<p>
523You should also take this time to verify that the appropriate console is
524listed in <path>/etc/securetty</path>.
525</p>
526
527<p>
468continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System 528You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
469Tools</uri>. 529System Tools</uri>.
470</p> 530</p>
471 531
472</body> 532</body>
473</subsection> 533</subsection>
474</section> 534</section>

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