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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.57 2005/04/07 16:12:35 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.78 2006/05/27 13:02:15 neysx Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<version>2.1</version> 11<version>2.19</version>
12<date>2005-04-07</date> 12<date>2006-05-27</date>
13 13
14<section> 14<section>
15<title>Filesystem Information</title> 15<title>Filesystem Information</title>
16<subsection> 16<subsection>
17<title>What is fstab?</title> 17<title>What is fstab?</title>
66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary). 66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
67</li> 67</li>
68</ul> 68</ul>
69 69
70<p> 70<p>
71The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab 71The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
72file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 72fstab file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
73<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 73<path>/etc/fstab</path>:
74</p> 74</p>
75 75
76<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 76<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
77# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 77# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
78</pre> 78</pre>
79 79
80<p> 80<p>
81Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 81Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
82partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a 82partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
83<path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim. 83<path>/boot</path> partition (such as Apple <b>PPC</b> machines), don't copy it
84verbatim.
84</p> 85</p>
85 86
86<p> 87<p>
87In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the 88In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
88<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. 89<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
179<p> 180<p>
180We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname: 181We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
181</p> 182</p>
182 183
183<pre caption="Setting the hostname"> 184<pre caption="Setting the hostname">
184# <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i> 185# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
186
187<comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your hostname)</comment>
188HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>"
185</pre> 189</pre>
186 190
187<p> 191<p>
188Second we set the domainname: 192Second we set the domainname:
189</p> 193</p>
190 194
191<pre caption="Setting the domainname"> 195<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
192# <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i> 196# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i>
197
198<comment>(Set the DNSDOMAIN variable to your domain name)</comment>
199DNSDOMAIN="<i>homenetwork</i>"
193</pre> 200</pre>
194 201
195<p> 202<p>
196If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have 203If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
197one), you need to define that one too: 204one), you need to define that one too:
198</p> 205</p>
199 206
200<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname"> 207<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
201# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i> 208# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i>
202</pre>
203 209
204<p> 210<comment>(Set the NISDOMAIN variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
205Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel: 211NISDOMAIN="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
206</p>
207
208<pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel">
209# <i>rc-update add domainname default</i>
210</pre> 212</pre>
211 213
212</body> 214</body>
213</subsection> 215</subsection>
214<subsection> 216<subsection>
215<title>Configuring your Network</title> 217<title>Configuring your Network</title>
216<body> 218<body>
217 219
218<p> 220<p>
219Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember 221Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
220that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was 222that the networking you set up in the beginning of the Gentoo installation was
221just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for 223just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
222your Gentoo system permanently. 224your Gentoo system permanently.
223</p> 225</p>
224 226
227<note>
228More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
229bonding, bridging, 802.1Q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
230link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
231</note>
232
225<p> 233<p>
226All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 234All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
227a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up 235a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
228networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :) 236networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
229</p> 237commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
230 238<path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>.
231<p> 239</p>
240
241<p>
242DHCP is used by default and does not require any further configuration.
243</p>
244
245<p>
246If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
247specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
232First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> 248<path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> is used in
233is used in this example): 249this example):
234</p> 250</p>
235 251
236<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing"> 252<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
237# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i> 253# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
238</pre> 254</pre>
239 255
240<p> 256<p>
241The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following 257You will see the following file:
242syntax:
243</p>
244
245<pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
246iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
247</pre>
248
249<p> 258</p>
250If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 259
251to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>. 260<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
252If you need to set up your network manually and you're 261# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
253not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 262# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
254link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#network_term">Understanding Network 263# please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration
255Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already. 264# in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
265</pre>
266
256</p> 267<p>
257 268To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
269to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
258<p> 270</p>
259So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static 271
260IP (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and 272<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
261gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for 273config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" )
262rp-pppoe usage: 274routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" )
275</pre>
276
263</p> 277<p>
264 278To use DHCP and add specific DHCP options, define <c>config_eth0</c> and
265<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net"> 279<c>dhcp_eth0</c>:
266<comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
267iface_eth0="dhcp"
268<comment># Some network admins require that you use the</comment>
269<comment># hostname and domainname provided by the DHCP server.</comment>
270<comment># In that case, add the following to let dhcpcd use them.</comment>
271<comment># That will override your own hostname and domainname definitions.</comment>
272dhcpcd_eth0="-HD"
273<comment># If you intend on using NTP to keep your machine clock synchronized, use</comment>
274<comment># the -N option to prevent dhcpcd from overwriting your /etc/ntp.conf file</comment>
275dhcpcd_eth0="-N"
276
277<comment>(For static IP)</comment>
278iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
279gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
280
281<comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
282iface_eth0="up"
283</pre>
284
285<p> 280</p>
286If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables, 281
287like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable 282<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
288shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer. 283config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
284dhcp_eth0="nodns nontp nonis"
285</pre>
286
287<p>
288Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available
289options.
290</p>
291
292<p>
293If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
294<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
289</p> 295</p>
290 296
291<p> 297<p>
292Now save the configuration and exit to continue. 298Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
293</p> 299</p>
326<title>Writing Down Network Information</title> 332<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
327<body> 333<body>
328 334
329<p> 335<p>
330You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in 336You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
331<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses 337<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses for
332for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your 338hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. You need to define your system.
333internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5), 339You may also want to define other systems on your network if you don't want to
334<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would 340set up your own internal DNS system.
335open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
336</p> 341</p>
337 342
338<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts"> 343<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
339# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i> 344# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
340</pre> 345</pre>
341 346
342<pre caption="Filling in the networking information"> 347<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
343127.0.0.1 localhost 348<comment>(This defines the current system)</comment>
349127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
350
351<comment>(Define extra systems on your network,
352they need to have a static IP to be defined this way.)</comment>
344192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny 353192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
345192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny 354192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
346192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
347</pre>
348
349<p>
350If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
351resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
352system <c>tux</c>:
353</p>
354
355<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
356127.0.0.1 localhost tux
357</pre> 355</pre>
358 356
359<p> 357<p>
360Save and exit the editor to continue. 358Save and exit the editor to continue.
361</p> 359</p>
436<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf"> 434<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
437# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 435# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
438</pre> 436</pre>
439 437
440<p> 438<p>
439When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit.
440</p>
441
442<p>
441As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary 443As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
442configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if 444configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
443you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on 445define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
444your keyboard. 446</p>
447
448<p>
449Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
450Edit it to configure your keyboard.
451</p>
452
453<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
454# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
455</pre>
456
457<p>
458Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong
459<c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
445</p> 460</p>
446 461
447<note> 462<note>
448Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to 463Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
449select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap". 464select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap". <b>PPC</b> uses x86
465keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB keymaps on boot
466have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to set a mac/ppc
467keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
450</note> 468</note>
451 469
452<p> 470<p>
453<b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use 471When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
454ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have 472exit.
455to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
456</p>
457
458<p> 473</p>
474
475<p>
476Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
477according to your needs.
478</p>
479
480<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock">
481# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
482</pre>
483
484<p>
485If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> to
486the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew. Furthermore, Windows
487assumes that your hardware clock uses local time, so if you want to dualboot,
488you should set this variable appropriately, otherwise your clock will go crazy.
489</p>
490
491<p>
459When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit, then 492When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and
493exit.
494</p>
495
496<p>
497If you are not installing Gentoo on IBM PPC64 hardware, continue with
498<uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System Tools</uri>.
499</p>
500
501</body>
502</subsection>
503<subsection>
504<title>Configuring the Console</title>
505<body>
506
507<note>
508The following section applies to the IBM PPC64 hardware platforms.
509</note>
510
511<p>
512If you are running Gentoo on IBM PPC64 hardware and using a virtual console
513you must uncomment the appropriate line in <path>/etc/inittab</path> for the
514virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
515</p>
516
517<pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab">
518hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0
519hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0
520</pre>
521
522<p>
523You should also take this time to verify that the appropriate console is
524listed in <path>/etc/securetty</path>.
525</p>
526
527<p>
460continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System 528You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
461Tools</uri>. 529System Tools</uri>.
462</p> 530</p>
463 531
464</body> 532</body>
465</subsection> 533</subsection>
466</section> 534</section>

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