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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/1.0 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.59 2005/04/21 13:27:19 swift Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.78 2006/05/27 13:02:15 neysx Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<version>2.2</version> 11<version>2.19</version>
12<date>2005-04-20</date> 12<date>2006-05-27</date>
13 13
14<section> 14<section>
15<title>Filesystem Information</title> 15<title>Filesystem Information</title>
16<subsection> 16<subsection>
17<title>What is fstab?</title> 17<title>What is fstab?</title>
66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary). 66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
67</li> 67</li>
68</ul> 68</ul>
69 69
70<p> 70<p>
71The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is no valid fstab 71The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
72file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 72fstab file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your
73<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 73<path>/etc/fstab</path>:
74</p> 74</p>
75 75
76<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 76<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
77# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 77# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
78</pre> 78</pre>
79 79
80<p> 80<p>
81Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 81Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
82partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a 82partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a
83<path>/boot</path> partition (such as <b>PPC</b>), don't copy it verbatim. 83<path>/boot</path> partition (such as Apple <b>PPC</b> machines), don't copy it
84verbatim.
84</p> 85</p>
85 86
86<p> 87<p>
87In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the 88In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the
88<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. 89<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem.
179<p> 180<p>
180We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname: 181We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
181</p> 182</p>
182 183
183<pre caption="Setting the hostname"> 184<pre caption="Setting the hostname">
184# <i>echo tux &gt; /etc/hostname</i> 185# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
186
187<comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your hostname)</comment>
188HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>"
185</pre> 189</pre>
186 190
187<p> 191<p>
188Second we set the domainname: 192Second we set the domainname:
189</p> 193</p>
190 194
191<pre caption="Setting the domainname"> 195<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
192# <i>echo homenetwork &gt; /etc/dnsdomainname</i> 196# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i>
197
198<comment>(Set the DNSDOMAIN variable to your domain name)</comment>
199DNSDOMAIN="<i>homenetwork</i>"
193</pre> 200</pre>
194 201
195<p> 202<p>
196If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have 203If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
197one), you need to define that one too: 204one), you need to define that one too:
198</p> 205</p>
199 206
200<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname"> 207<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
201# <i>echo nis.homenetwork &gt; /etc/nisdomainname</i> 208# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i>
202</pre>
203 209
204<p> 210<comment>(Set the NISDOMAIN variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
205Now add the <c>domainname</c> script to the default runlevel: 211NISDOMAIN="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
206</p>
207
208<pre caption="Adding domainname to the default runlevel">
209# <i>rc-update add domainname default</i>
210</pre> 212</pre>
211 213
212</body> 214</body>
213</subsection> 215</subsection>
214<subsection> 216<subsection>
215<title>Configuring your Network</title> 217<title>Configuring your Network</title>
216<body> 218<body>
217 219
218<p> 220<p>
219Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember 221Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
220that the networking you set up in the beginning of the gentoo installation was 222that the networking you set up in the beginning of the Gentoo installation was
221just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for 223just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
222your Gentoo system permanently. 224your Gentoo system permanently.
223</p> 225</p>
224 226
227<note>
228More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
229bonding, bridging, 802.1Q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
230link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
231</note>
232
225<p> 233<p>
226All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses 234All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
227a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up 235a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
228networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything :) 236networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
229</p> 237commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
230 238<path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>.
231<p> 239</p>
240
241<p>
242DHCP is used by default and does not require any further configuration.
243</p>
244
245<p>
246If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
247specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
232First open <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> 248<path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> is used in
233is used in this example): 249this example):
234</p> 250</p>
235 251
236<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing"> 252<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
237# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i> 253# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
238</pre> 254</pre>
239 255
240<!-- Old baselayout - current stable -->
241
242<p>
243The first variable you'll find is <c>iface_eth0</c>. It uses the following
244syntax:
245</p> 256<p>
246 257You will see the following file:
247<pre caption="iface_eth0 syntaxis">
248iface_eth0="<i>&lt;your ip address&gt;</i> broadcast <i>&lt;your broadcast address&gt;</i> netmask <i>&lt;your netmask&gt;</i>"
249</pre>
250
251<p> 258</p>
252If you use DHCP (automatic IP retrieval), you should just set <c>iface_eth0</c> 259
253to <c>dhcp</c>. If you use rp-pppoe (e.g. for ADSL), set it to <c>up</c>. 260<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
254If you need to set up your network manually and you're 261# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
255not familiar with all the above terms, please read the section on <uri 262# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
256link="?part=1&amp;chap=3#network_term">Understanding Network 263# please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration
257Terminology</uri> if you haven't done so already. 264# in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
265</pre>
266
258</p> 267<p>
259 268To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
269to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
260<p> 270</p>
261So let us give three examples; the first one uses DHCP, the second one a static 271
262IP (192.168.0.2) with netmask 255.255.255.0, broadcast 192.168.0.255 and 272<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
263gateway 192.168.0.1 while the third one just activates the interface for 273config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" )
264rp-pppoe usage: 274routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" )
275</pre>
276
265</p> 277<p>
266 278To use DHCP and add specific DHCP options, define <c>config_eth0</c> and
267<pre caption="Examples for /etc/conf.d/net"> 279<c>dhcp_eth0</c>:
268<comment>(For DHCP)</comment>
269iface_eth0="dhcp"
270<comment># Some network admins require that you use the</comment>
271<comment># hostname and domainname provided by the DHCP server.</comment>
272<comment># In that case, add the following to let dhcpcd use them.</comment>
273<comment># That will override your own hostname and domainname definitions.</comment>
274dhcpcd_eth0="-HD"
275<comment># If you intend on using NTP to keep your machine clock synchronized, use</comment>
276<comment># the -N option to prevent dhcpcd from overwriting your /etc/ntp.conf file</comment>
277dhcpcd_eth0="-N"
278
279<comment>(For static IP)</comment>
280iface_eth0="192.168.0.2 broadcast 192.168.0.255 netmask 255.255.255.0"
281gateway="eth0/192.168.0.1"
282
283<comment>(For rp-pppoe)</comment>
284iface_eth0="up"
285</pre>
286
287<p> 280</p>
288If you have several network interfaces, create extra <c>iface_eth</c> variables,
289like <c>iface_eth1</c>, <c>iface_eth2</c> etc. The <c>gateway</c> variable
290shouldn't be reproduced as you can only set one gateway per computer.
291</p>
292 281
293<!-- New baselayout - current testing
294
295<p>
296The first variable you'll find is called <c>config_eth0</c>. As you can probably
297imagine, this variable configured the eth0 network interface. If the interface
298needs to automatically obtain an IP through DHCP, you should set it like so:
299</p>
300
301<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP for eth0"> 282<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
302config_eth0=( "dhcp" ) 283config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
284dhcp_eth0="nodns nontp nonis"
303</pre> 285</pre>
304 286
305<p>
306However, if you have to enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
307to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
308</p> 287<p>
309 288Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available
310<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0"> 289options.
311config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0" )
312routes_eth0=( "default gw 192.168.0.1" )
313</pre> 290</p>
314 291
315<p> 292<p>
316If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for 293If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
317<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc. 294<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
318</p> 295</p>
319
320-->
321 296
322<p> 297<p>
323Now save the configuration and exit to continue. 298Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
324</p> 299</p>
325 300
357<title>Writing Down Network Information</title> 332<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
358<body> 333<body>
359 334
360<p> 335<p>
361You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in 336You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
362<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses 337<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses for
363for hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. For instance, if your 338hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. You need to define your system.
364internal network consists of three PCs called <c>jenny</c> (192.168.0.5), 339You may also want to define other systems on your network if you don't want to
365<c>benny</c> (192.168.0.6) and <c>tux</c> (192.168.0.7 - this system) you would 340set up your own internal DNS system.
366open <path>/etc/hosts</path> and fill in the values:
367</p> 341</p>
368 342
369<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts"> 343<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
370# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i> 344# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
371</pre> 345</pre>
372 346
373<pre caption="Filling in the networking information"> 347<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
374127.0.0.1 localhost 348<comment>(This defines the current system)</comment>
349127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
350
351<comment>(Define extra systems on your network,
352they need to have a static IP to be defined this way.)</comment>
375192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny 353192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
376192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny 354192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
377192.168.0.7 tux.homenetwork tux
378</pre>
379
380<p>
381If your system is the only system (or the nameservers handle all name
382resolution) a single line is sufficient. For instance, if you want to call your
383system <c>tux</c>:
384</p>
385
386<pre caption="/etc/hosts for lonely or fully integrated PCs">
387127.0.0.1 localhost tux
388</pre> 355</pre>
389 356
390<p> 357<p>
391Save and exit the editor to continue. 358Save and exit the editor to continue.
392</p> 359</p>
467<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf"> 434<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
468# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i> 435# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
469</pre> 436</pre>
470 437
471<p> 438<p>
439When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit.
440</p>
441
442<p>
472As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary 443As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
473configuration variables. Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> setting: if 444configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
474you select the wrong <c>KEYMAP</c> you will get weird results when typing on 445define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
475your keyboard. 446</p>
447
448<p>
449Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
450Edit it to configure your keyboard.
451</p>
452
453<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
454# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
455</pre>
456
457<p>
458Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong
459<c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
476</p> 460</p>
477 461
478<note> 462<note>
479Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to 463Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to
480select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap". 464select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap". <b>PPC</b> uses x86
465keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB keymaps on boot
466have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to set a mac/ppc
467keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
481</note> 468</note>
482 469
483<p> 470<p>
484<b>PPC</b> uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use 471When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
485ADB keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have 472exit.
486to set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>rc.conf</path>.
487</p>
488
489<p> 473</p>
474
475<p>
476Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
477according to your needs.
478</p>
479
480<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock">
481# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
482</pre>
483
484<p>
485If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> to
486the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew. Furthermore, Windows
487assumes that your hardware clock uses local time, so if you want to dualboot,
488you should set this variable appropriately, otherwise your clock will go crazy.
489</p>
490
491<p>
490When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit. 492When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and
491</p> 493exit.
492
493<p> 494</p>
495
496<p>
494If you are not installing Gentoo on an IBM POWER5 or JS20 system, continue with 497If you are not installing Gentoo on IBM PPC64 hardware, continue with
495<uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System Tools</uri>. 498<uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System Tools</uri>.
496</p> 499</p>
497 500
498</body> 501</body>
499</subsection> 502</subsection>
500<subsection> 503<subsection>
501<title>Configuring the Console</title> 504<title>Configuring the Console</title>
502<body> 505<body>
503 506
504<note> 507<note>
505The following section applies to the IBM POWER5 and JS20 hardware platforms. 508The following section applies to the IBM PPC64 hardware platforms.
506</note> 509</note>
507 510
508<p> 511<p>
509If you are running gentoo in an LPAR or on a JS20 blade, you must uncomment 512If you are running Gentoo on IBM PPC64 hardware and using a virtual console
510the hvc line in /etc/inittab for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt. 513you must uncomment the appropriate line in <path>/etc/inittab</path> for the
514virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
511</p> 515</p>
512 516
513<pre caption="Enabling hvc support in /etc/inittab"> 517<pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab">
514hvc:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -nl /bin/bashlogin 9600 hvc0 vt220 518hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0
519hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0
520</pre>
521
522<p>
523You should also take this time to verify that the appropriate console is
524listed in <path>/etc/securetty</path>.
515</pre> 525</p>
516 526
517<p> 527<p>
518You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary 528You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
519System Tools</uri>. 529System Tools</uri>.
520</p> 530</p>

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