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2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd"> 2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3 3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --> 5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6 6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.78 2006/05/27 13:02:15 neysx Exp $ --> 7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.86 2006/10/28 09:17:54 neysx Exp $ -->
8 8
9<sections> 9<sections>
10 10
11<abstract>
12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
14proceed.
15</abstract>
16
11<version>2.19</version> 17<version>7.4</version>
12<date>2006-05-27</date> 18<date>2006-10-20</date>
13 19
14<section> 20<section>
15<title>Filesystem Information</title> 21<title>Filesystem Information</title>
16<subsection> 22<subsection>
17<title>What is fstab?</title> 23<title>What is fstab?</title>
18<body> 24<body>
19 25
20<p> 26<p>
21Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in 27Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
22<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mountpoints of those partitions 28<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mount points of those partitions
23(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted 29(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
24and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount 30and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
25them or not, etc.) 31them or not, etc.)
26</p> 32</p>
27 33
41<li> 47<li>
42 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device 48 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
43 file) 49 file)
44</li> 50</li>
45<li> 51<li>
46 The second field shows the <b>mountpoint</b> at which the partition should be 52 The second field shows the <b>mount point</b> at which the partition should be
47 mounted 53 mounted
48</li> 54</li>
49<li> 55<li>
50 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition 56 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
51</li> 57</li>
52<li> 58<li>
53 The fourth field shows the <b>mountoptions</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it 59 The fourth field shows the <b>mount options</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
54 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mountoptions, 60 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mount options,
55 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full 61 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
56 listing. Multiple mountoptions are comma-separated. 62 listing. Multiple mount options are comma-separated.
57</li> 63</li>
58<li> 64<li>
59 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to 65 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
60 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero). 66 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
61</li> 67</li>
65 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c> 71 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
66 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary). 72 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
67</li> 73</li>
68</ul> 74</ul>
69 75
70<p> 76<impo>
71The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid 77The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
72fstab file</e>, so start <c>nano</c> (or your favorite editor) to create your 78fstab file</e>, You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
73<path>/etc/fstab</path>: 79</impo>
74</p>
75 80
76<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab"> 81<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
77# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i> 82# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
78</pre> 83</pre>
79 84
85</body>
86<body test="func:keyval('/boot')">
87
80<p> 88<p>
81Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path> 89Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
82partition. This is just an example, so if your architecture doesn't require a 90partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a
83<path>/boot</path> partition (such as Apple <b>PPC</b> machines), don't copy it 91<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it.
84verbatim.
85</p>
86
87<p> 92</p>
93
94<p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/hd')">
88In our default x86 partitioning example <path>/boot</path> is the 95In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
89<path>/dev/hda1</path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as filesystem. 96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition (or
97<path>/dev/sda*</path> if you use SCSI or SATA drives), with <c>ext2</c> as
90It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down: 98filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
99</p>
100
101<p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/sd')">
102In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
103usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
104filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
91</p> 105</p>
92 106
93<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 107<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
94/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults 1 2 108<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
95</pre> 109</pre>
96 110
97<p> 111<p>
98Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted 112Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
99automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should 113automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
100substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to 114substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
101manually mount this partition every time you want to use it. 115manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
102</p> 116</p>
103 117
118</body>
119<body>
120
121<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='SPARC')">
122Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for
123<path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>, for your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if
124you have other partitions or drives, for those too.
104<p> 125</p>
105Now, to improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
106option as mountoption, which results in a faster system since access times
107aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway):
108</p>
109 126
110<pre caption="An improved /boot line for /etc/fstab"> 127<p test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
111/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 128Add the rules that match your partitioning schema and append rules for
112</pre> 129<path>/proc/openprom</path>, <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c> , for your CD-ROM
113 130drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives, for those too.
114<p> 131</p>
115If we continue with this, we would end up with the following three lines (for 132
116<path>/boot</path>, <path>/</path> and the swap partition):
117</p> 133<p>
118 134Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
119<pre caption="Three /etc/fstab lines">
120/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
121/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
122/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
123</pre>
124
125<p> 135</p>
126To finish up, you should add a rule for <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>
127(required) and for your CD-ROM drive (and of course, if you have other
128partitions or drives, for those too):
129</p>
130 136
131<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example"> 137<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
132/dev/hda1 /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2 138<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
133/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0 139/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
134/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1 140/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
135 141
136none /proc proc defaults 0 0 142none /proc proc defaults 0 0
137none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0 143none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
138 144
145/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
146</pre>
147
148<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
149<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
150/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
151/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
152
153none /proc proc defaults 0 0
154none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
155
156/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
157</pre>
158
159<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS'">
160<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
161/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
162/dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
163
164none /proc proc defaults 0 0
165none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
166
167/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
168</pre>
169
170<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
171/dev/sda1 / ext3 noatime 0 1
172/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
173/dev/sda4 /usr ext3 noatime 0 2
174/dev/sda5 /var ext3 noatime 0 2
175/dev/sda6 /home ext3 noatime 0 2
176
177none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
178none /proc proc defaults 0 0
179none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
180
139/dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0 181/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
182</pre>
183
184<note test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'">
185There are important variations between PPC machine types. Please make sure you
186adapt the following example to your system.
187</note>
188
189<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'">
190/dev/hda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
191/dev/hda3 none swap sw 0 0
192
193none /proc proc defaults 0 0
194none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
195
196/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
197</pre>
198
199<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
200/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
201/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
202
203none /proc proc defaults 0 0
204none /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
205
206/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
140</pre> 207</pre>
141 208
142<p> 209<p>
143<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for 210<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
144removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and 211removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
145<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD. 212<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
146</p> 213</p>
147 214
148<p> 215<p>
149Now use the above example to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>. If you are a 216To improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
150<b>SPARC</b>-user, you should add the following line to your 217mount option, which results in a faster system since access times
151<path>/etc/fstab</path> 218aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway).
152too:
153</p>
154
155<pre caption="Adding openprom filesystem to /etc/fstab">
156none /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
157</pre> 219</p>
158 220
159<p> 221<p>
160Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue. 222Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
161</p> 223</p>
162 224
164</subsection> 226</subsection>
165</section> 227</section>
166<section> 228<section>
167<title>Networking Information</title> 229<title>Networking Information</title>
168<subsection> 230<subsection>
169<title>Hostname, Domainname etc.</title> 231<title>Host name, Domainname, etc</title>
170<body> 232<body>
171 233
172<p> 234<p>
173One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be 235One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
174quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the 236quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
175appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you 237appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
176choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system 238choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
177<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>. 239<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
178</p> 240</p>
179 241
180<p>
181We use these values in the next examples. First we set the hostname:
182</p>
183
184<pre caption="Setting the hostname"> 242<pre caption="Setting the host name">
185# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i> 243# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
186 244
187<comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your hostname)</comment> 245<comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your host name)</comment>
188HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>" 246HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>"
189</pre> 247</pre>
190 248
191<p> 249<p>
192Second we set the domainname: 250Second we set the domainname in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>:
193</p> 251</p>
194 252
195<pre caption="Setting the domainname"> 253<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
196# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i> 254# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
197 255
198<comment>(Set the DNSDOMAIN variable to your domain name)</comment> 256<comment>(Set the dns_domain variable to your domain name)</comment>
199DNSDOMAIN="<i>homenetwork</i>" 257dns_domain_lo="<i>homenetwork</i>"
200</pre> 258</pre>
201 259
202<p> 260<p>
203If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have 261If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
204one), you need to define that one too: 262one), you need to define that one too:
205</p> 263</p>
206 264
207<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname"> 265<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
208# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/domainname</i> 266# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
209 267
210<comment>(Set the NISDOMAIN variable to your NIS domain name)</comment> 268<comment>(Set the nis_domain variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
211NISDOMAIN="<i>my-nisdomain</i>" 269nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
212</pre> 270</pre>
271
272<note>
273For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
274provided in <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>.
275</note>
213 276
214</body> 277</body>
215</subsection> 278</subsection>
216<subsection> 279<subsection>
217<title>Configuring your Network</title> 280<title>Configuring your Network</title>
237commented example that covers many different configurations is available in 300commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
238<path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. 301<path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>.
239</p> 302</p>
240 303
241<p> 304<p>
242DHCP is used by default and does not require any further configuration. 305DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
306client. This is described later in <uri
307link="?part=1&amp;chap=9#networking-tools">Installing Necessary System
308Tools</uri>. Do not forget to install a DHCP client.
243</p> 309</p>
244 310
245<p> 311<p>
246If you need to configure your network connection either because you need 312If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
247specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open 313specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
320use <c>ln</c> to do this: 386use <c>ln</c> to do this:
321</p> 387</p>
322 388
323<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts"> 389<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
324# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i> 390# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
325# <i>ln -s net.eth0 net.eth1</i> 391# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth1</i>
326# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i> 392# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
327</pre> 393</pre>
328 394
329</body> 395</body>
330</subsection> 396</subsection>
332<title>Writing Down Network Information</title> 398<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
333<body> 399<body>
334 400
335<p> 401<p>
336You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in 402You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
337<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving hostnames to IP addresses for 403<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving host names to IP addresses for
338hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. You need to define your system. 404hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. You need to define your system.
339You may also want to define other systems on your network if you don't want to 405You may also want to define other systems on your network if you don't want to
340set up your own internal DNS system. 406set up your own internal DNS system.
341</p> 407</p>
342 408
356 422
357<p> 423<p>
358Save and exit the editor to continue. 424Save and exit the editor to continue.
359</p> 425</p>
360 426
361<p> 427<p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
362If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri 428If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
363link="#doc_chap3">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the 429link="#sysinfo">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
364following topic on PCMCIA. 430following topic on PCMCIA.
365</p> 431</p>
366 432
367</body> 433</body>
368</subsection> 434</subsection>
369<subsection> 435<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
370<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title> 436<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
371<body> 437<body>
372
373<note>
374pcmcia-cs is only available for x86, amd64 and ppc platforms.
375</note>
376 438
377<p> 439<p>
378PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also 440PCMCIA-users should first install the <c>pcmcia-cs</c> package. This also
379includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be 441includes users who will be working with a 2.6 kernel (even though they won't be
380using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary 442using the PCMCIA drivers from this package). The <c>USE="-X"</c> is necessary
395</pre> 457</pre>
396 458
397</body> 459</body>
398</subsection> 460</subsection>
399</section> 461</section>
400<section> 462
463<section id="sysinfo">
401<title>System Information</title> 464<title>System Information</title>
402<subsection> 465<subsection>
403<title>Root Password</title> 466<title>Root Password</title>
404<body> 467<body>
405 468
457<p> 520<p>
458Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong 521Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong
459<c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard. 522<c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
460</p> 523</p>
461 524
525<note test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
526Users of USB-based SPARC systems and SPARC clones might need to select an i386
527keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap".
462<note> 528</note>
463Users of USB-based <b>SPARC</b> systems and <b>SPARC</b> clones might need to 529
464select an i386 keymap (such as "us") instead of "sunkeymap". <b>PPC</b> uses x86 530<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
465keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB keymaps on boot 531PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB
466have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to set a mac/ppc 532keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to
467keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>. 533set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
468</note> 534</note>
469 535
470<p> 536<p>
471When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and 537When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
472exit. 538exit.
480<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock"> 546<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock">
481# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i> 547# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
482</pre> 548</pre>
483 549
484<p> 550<p>
485If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c> to 551If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c>
486the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew. Furthermore, Windows 552to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
487assumes that your hardware clock uses local time, so if you want to dualboot,
488you should set this variable appropriately, otherwise your clock will go crazy.
489</p> 553</p>
490 554
491<p> 555<p>
492When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and 556When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and
493exit. 557exit.
494</p> 558</p>
495 559
560<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
561Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
562Tools</uri>.
496<p> 563</p>
497If you are not installing Gentoo on IBM PPC64 hardware, continue with
498<uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System Tools</uri>.
499</p>
500 564
501</body> 565</body>
502</subsection>
503<subsection> 566</subsection>
567<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
504<title>Configuring the Console</title> 568<title>Configuring the Console</title>
505<body> 569<body>
506 570
507<note>
508The following section applies to the IBM PPC64 hardware platforms.
509</note>
510
511<p> 571<p>
512If you are running Gentoo on IBM PPC64 hardware and using a virtual console 572If you are using a virtual console, you must uncomment the appropriate line in
513you must uncomment the appropriate line in <path>/etc/inittab</path> for the 573<path>/etc/inittab</path> for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
514virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
515</p> 574</p>
516 575
517<pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab"> 576<pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab">
518hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0 577hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0
519hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0 578hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0

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