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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
2<!DOCTYPE sections SYSTEM "/dtd/book.dtd">
3
4<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
5<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
6
7<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/handbook/hb-install-config.xml,v 1.90 2007/05/07 18:11:40 nightmorph Exp $ -->
8
9<sections>
10
11<abstract>
12You need to edit some important configuration files. In this chapter
13you receive an overview of these files and an explanation on how to
14proceed.
15</abstract>
16
17<version>8.0</version>
18<date>2007-05-07</date>
19
1<section> 20<section>
2<subsection>
3<title>Timezone</title>
4<body>
5
6<p>
7<path>/etc/localtime</path>.
8</p>
9
10</body>
11</subsection>
12<subsection>
13<title>Filesystem Information</title> 21<title>Filesystem Information</title>
14<body>
15
16<p>
17<path>/etc/fstab</path>
18</p>
19
20</body>
21</subsection> 22<subsection>
23<title>What is fstab?</title>
24<body>
25
26<p>
27Under Linux, all partitions used by the system must be listed in
28<path>/etc/fstab</path>. This file contains the mount points of those partitions
29(where they are seen in the file system structure), how they should be mounted
30and with what special options (automatically or not, whether users can mount
31them or not, etc.)
32</p>
33
34</body>
22<subsection> 35</subsection>
36<subsection>
37<title>Creating /etc/fstab</title>
38<body>
39
40<p>
41<path>/etc/fstab</path> uses a special syntax. Every line consists of six
42fields, separated by whitespace (space(s), tabs or a mixture). Each field has
43its own meaning:
44</p>
45
46<ul>
47<li>
48 The first field shows the <b>partition</b> described (the path to the device
49 file)
50</li>
51<li>
52 The second field shows the <b>mount point</b> at which the partition should be
53 mounted
54</li>
55<li>
56 The third field shows the <b>filesystem</b> used by the partition
57</li>
58<li>
59 The fourth field shows the <b>mount options</b> used by <c>mount</c> when it
60 wants to mount the partition. As every filesystem has its own mount options,
61 you are encouraged to read the mount man page (<c>man mount</c>) for a full
62 listing. Multiple mount options are comma-separated.
63</li>
64<li>
65 The fifth field is used by <c>dump</c> to determine if the partition needs to
66 be <b>dump</b>ed or not. You can generally leave this as <c>0</c> (zero).
67</li>
68<li>
69 The sixth field is used by <c>fsck</c> to determine the order in which
70 filesystems should be <b>check</b>ed if the system wasn't shut down properly.
71 The root filesystem should have <c>1</c> while the rest should have <c>2</c>
72 (or <c>0</c> if a filesystem check isn't necessary).
73</li>
74</ul>
75
76<impo>
77The default <path>/etc/fstab</path> file provided by Gentoo <e>is not a valid
78fstab file</e>. You <b>have to create</b> your own <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
79</impo>
80
81<pre caption="Opening /etc/fstab">
82# <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
83</pre>
84
85</body>
86<body test="func:keyval('/boot')">
87
88<p>
89Let us take a look at how we write down the options for the <path>/boot</path>
90partition. This is just an example, if you didn't or couldn't create a
91<path>/boot</path>, don't copy it.
92</p>
93
94<p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/hd')">
95In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
96usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition (or
97<path>/dev/sda*</path> if you use SCSI or SATA drives), with <c>ext2</c> as
98filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
99</p>
100
101<p test="contains(func:keyval('/boot'), '/dev/sd')">
102In our default <keyval id="arch"/> partitioning example, <path>/boot</path> is
103usually the <path><keyval id="/boot"/></path> partition, with <c>ext2</c> as
104filesystem. It needs to be checked during boot, so we would write down:
105</p>
106
107<pre caption="An example /boot line for /etc/fstab">
108<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults 1 2
109</pre>
110
111<p>
112Some users don't want their <path>/boot</path> partition to be mounted
113automatically to improve their system's security. Those people should
114substitute <c>defaults</c> with <c>noauto</c>. This does mean that you need to
115manually mount this partition every time you want to use it.
116</p>
117
118</body>
119<body>
120
121<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='SPARC')">
122Add the rules that match your partitioning scheme and append rules for
123<path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c>, for your CD-ROM drive(s), and of course, if
124you have other partitions or drives, for those too.
125</p>
126
127<p test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
128Add the rules that match your partitioning schema and append rules for
129<path>/proc/openprom</path>, <path>/proc</path>, <c>tmpfs</c> , for your CD-ROM
130drive(s), and of course, if you have other partitions or drives, for those too.
131</p>
132
133<p>
134Now use the <e>example</e> below to create your <path>/etc/fstab</path>:
135</p>
136
137<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86'">
138<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
139/dev/hda2 none swap sw 0 0
140/dev/hda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
141
142proc /proc proc nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
143shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
144
145/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
146</pre>
147
148<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='HPPA'">
149<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
150/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
151/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
152
153proc /proc proc nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
154shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
155
156/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
157</pre>
158
159<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='Alpha' or func:keyval('arch')='MIPS'">
160<keyval id="/boot"/> /boot ext2 defaults,noatime 1 2
161/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
162/dev/sda3 / ext3 noatime 0 1
163
164proc /proc proc nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
165shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
166
167/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
168</pre>
169
170<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='SPARC'">
171/dev/sda1 / ext3 noatime 0 1
172/dev/sda2 none swap sw 0 0
173/dev/sda4 /usr ext3 noatime 0 2
174/dev/sda5 /var ext3 noatime 0 2
175/dev/sda6 /home ext3 noatime 0 2
176
177openprom /proc/openprom openpromfs defaults 0 0
178proc /proc proc nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
179shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
180
181/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
182</pre>
183
184<note test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'">
185There are important variations between PPC machine types. Please make sure you
186adapt the following example to your system.
187</note>
188
189<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC'">
190/dev/hda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
191/dev/hda3 none swap sw 0 0
192
193proc /proc proc nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
194shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
195
196/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
197</pre>
198
199<pre caption="A full /etc/fstab example" test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
200/dev/sda4 / ext3 noatime 0 1
201/dev/sda3 none swap sw 0 0
202
203proc /proc proc nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
204shm /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
205
206/dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom auto noauto,user 0 0
207</pre>
208
209<p>
210<c>auto</c> makes <c>mount</c> guess for the filesystem (recommended for
211removable media as they can be created with one of many filesystems) and
212<c>user</c> makes it possible for non-root users to mount the CD.
213</p>
214
215<p>
216To improve performance, most users would want to add the <c>noatime</c>
217mount option, which results in a faster system since access times
218aren't registered (you don't need those generally anyway).
219</p>
220
221<p>
222Double-check your <path>/etc/fstab</path>, save and quit to continue.
223</p>
224
225</body>
226</subsection>
227</section>
228<section>
23<title>Networking Information</title> 229<title>Networking Information</title>
24<body>
25
26<p>
27<path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>, <c>rc-update add net.eth0</c>,
28PCMCIA-information etc.
29</p>
30
31</body>
32</subsection> 230<subsection>
231<title>Host name, Domainname, etc</title>
232<body>
233
234<p>
235One of the choices the user has to make is name his/her PC. This seems to be
236quite easy, but <e>lots</e> of users are having difficulties finding the
237appropriate name for their Linux-pc. To speed things up, know that any name you
238choose can be changed afterwards. For all we care, you can just call your system
239<c>tux</c> and domain <c>homenetwork</c>.
240</p>
241
242<pre caption="Setting the host name">
243# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
244
245<comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your host name)</comment>
246HOSTNAME="<i>tux</i>"
247</pre>
248
249<p>
250Second, <e>if</e> you need a domainname, set it in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>.
251You only need a domain if your ISP or network administrator says so, or if you
252have a DNS server but not a DHCP server. You don't need to worry about DNS or
253domainnames if your networking is setup for DHCP.
254</p>
255
256<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
257# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
258
259<comment>(Set the dns_domain variable to your domain name)</comment>
260dns_domain_lo="<i>homenetwork</i>"
261</pre>
262
263<note>
264If you choose not to set a domainname, you can get rid of the "This is
265hostname.(none)" messages at your login screen by editing
266<path>/etc/issue</path>. Just delete the string <c>.\O</c> from that file.
267</note>
268
269<p>
270If you have a NIS domain (if you don't know what that is, then you don't have
271one), you need to define that one too:
272</p>
273
274<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
275# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
276
277<comment>(Set the nis_domain variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
278nis_domain_lo="<i>my-nisdomain</i>"
279</pre>
280
281<note>
282For more information on configuring DNS and NIS, please read the examples
283provided in <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>. Also, you may want to emerge
284<c>resolvconf-gentoo</c> to help manage your DNS/NIS setup.
285</note>
286
287</body>
33<subsection> 288</subsection>
289<subsection>
290<title>Configuring your Network</title>
291<body>
292
293<p>
294Before you get that "Hey, we've had that already"-feeling, you should remember
295that the networking you set up in the beginning of the Gentoo installation was
296just for the installation. Right now you are going to configure networking for
297your Gentoo system permanently.
298</p>
299
300<note>
301More detailed information about networking, including advanced topics like
302bonding, bridging, 802.1Q VLANs or wireless networking is covered in the <uri
303link="?part=4">Gentoo Network Configuration</uri> section.
304</note>
305
306<p>
307All networking information is gathered in <path>/etc/conf.d/net</path>. It uses
308a straightforward yet not intuitive syntax if you don't know how to set up
309networking manually. But don't fear, we'll explain everything. A fully
310commented example that covers many different configurations is available in
311<path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>.
312</p>
313
314<p>
315DHCP is used by default. For DHCP to work, you will need to install a DHCP
316client. This is described later in <uri
317link="?part=1&amp;chap=9#networking-tools">Installing Necessary System
318Tools</uri>. Do not forget to install a DHCP client.
319</p>
320
321<p>
322If you need to configure your network connection either because you need
323specific DHCP options or because you do not use DHCP at all, open
324<path>/etc/conf.d/net</path> with your favorite editor (<c>nano</c> is used in
325this example):
326</p>
327
328<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/net for editing">
329# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/net</i>
330</pre>
331
332<p>
333You will see the following file:
334</p>
335
336<pre caption="Default /etc/conf.d/net">
337# This blank configuration will automatically use DHCP for any net.*
338# scripts in /etc/init.d. To create a more complete configuration,
339# please review /etc/conf.d/net.example and save your configuration
340# in /etc/conf.d/net (this file :]!).
341</pre>
342
343<p>
344To enter your own IP address, netmask and gateway, you need
345to set both <c>config_eth0</c> and <c>routes_eth0</c>:
346</p>
347
348<pre caption="Manually setting IP information for eth0">
349config_eth0=( "192.168.0.2 netmask 255.255.255.0 brd 192.168.0.255" )
350routes_eth0=( "default via 192.168.0.1" )
351</pre>
352
353<p>
354To use DHCP and add specific DHCP options, define <c>config_eth0</c> and
355<c>dhcp_eth0</c>:
356</p>
357
358<pre caption="Automatically obtaining an IP address for eth0">
359config_eth0=( "dhcp" )
360dhcp_eth0="nodns nontp nonis"
361</pre>
362
363<p>
364Please read <path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path> for a list of all available
365options.
366</p>
367
368<p>
369If you have several network interfaces repeat the above steps for
370<c>config_eth1</c>, <c>config_eth2</c>, etc.
371</p>
372
373<p>
374Now save the configuration and exit to continue.
375</p>
376
377</body>
378</subsection>
379<subsection>
380<title>Automatically Start Networking at Boot</title>
381<body>
382
383<p>
384To have your network interfaces activated at boot, you need to add them to the
385default runlevel.
386</p>
387
388<pre caption="Adding net.eth0 to the default runlevel">
389# <i>rc-update add net.eth0 default</i>
390</pre>
391
392<p>
393If you have several network interfaces, you need to create the appropriate
394<path>net.eth1</path>, <path>net.eth2</path> etc. initscripts for those. You can
395use <c>ln</c> to do this:
396</p>
397
398<pre caption="Creating extra initscripts">
399# <i>cd /etc/init.d</i>
400# <i>ln -s net.lo net.eth1</i>
401# <i>rc-update add net.eth1 default</i>
402</pre>
403
404</body>
405</subsection>
406<subsection>
407<title>Writing Down Network Information</title>
408<body>
409
410<p>
411You now need to inform Linux about your network. This is defined in
412<path>/etc/hosts</path> and helps in resolving host names to IP addresses for
413hosts that aren't resolved by your nameserver. You need to define your system.
414You may also want to define other systems on your network if you don't want to
415set up your own internal DNS system.
416</p>
417
418<pre caption="Opening /etc/hosts">
419# <i>nano -w /etc/hosts</i>
420</pre>
421
422<pre caption="Filling in the networking information">
423<comment>(This defines the current system)</comment>
424127.0.0.1 tux.homenetwork tux localhost
425
426<comment>(Define extra systems on your network,
427they need to have a static IP to be defined this way.)</comment>
428192.168.0.5 jenny.homenetwork jenny
429192.168.0.6 benny.homenetwork benny
430</pre>
431
432<p>
433Save and exit the editor to continue.
434</p>
435
436<p test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
437If you don't have PCMCIA, you can now continue with <uri
438link="#sysinfo">System Information</uri>. PCMCIA-users should read the
439following topic on PCMCIA.
440</p>
441
442</body>
443</subsection>
444<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='AMD64' or func:keyval('arch')='x86' or substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
445<title>Optional: Get PCMCIA Working</title>
446<body>
447
448<p>
449PCMCIA users should first install the <c>pcmciautils</c> package.
450</p>
451
452<pre caption="Installing pcmciautils">
453# <i>emerge pcmciautils</i>
454</pre>
455
456</body>
457</subsection>
458</section>
459
460<section id="sysinfo">
34<title>System Information</title> 461<title>System Information</title>
462<subsection>
463<title>Root Password</title>
464<body>
465
466<p>
467First we set the root password by typing:
468</p>
469
470<pre caption="Setting the root password">
471# <i>passwd</i>
472</pre>
473
474<p>
475If you want root to be able to log on through the serial console, add
476<c>tts/0</c> to <path>/etc/securetty</path>:
477</p>
478
479<pre caption="Adding tts/0 to /etc/securetty">
480# <i>echo "tts/0" &gt;&gt; /etc/securetty</i>
481</pre>
482
35<body> 483</body>
484</subsection>
485<subsection>
486<title>System Information</title>
487<body>
36 488
489<p>
490Gentoo uses <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> for general, system-wide configuration.
491Open up <path>/etc/rc.conf</path> and enjoy all the comments in that file :)
37<p> 492</p>
38<path>/etc/rc.conf</path> 493
494<pre caption="Opening /etc/rc.conf">
495# <i>nano -w /etc/rc.conf</i>
496</pre>
497
498<p>
499When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>, save and exit.
500</p>
501
502<p>
503As you can see, this file is well commented to help you set up the necessary
504configuration variables. You can configure your system to use unicode and
505define your default editor and your display manager (like gdm or kdm).
506</p>
507
508<p>
509Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path> to handle keyboard configuration.
510Edit it to configure your keyboard.
511</p>
512
513<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/keymaps">
514# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/keymaps</i>
515</pre>
516
517<p>
518Take special care with the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable. If you select the wrong
519<c>KEYMAP</c>, you will get weird results when typing on your keyboard.
520</p>
521
522<note test="substring(func:keyval('arch'),1,3)='PPC'">
523PPC uses x86 keymaps on most systems. Users who want to be able to use ADB
524keymaps on boot have to enable ADB keycode sendings in their kernel and have to
525set a mac/ppc keymap in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>.
526</note>
527
528<p>
529When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>, save and
530exit.
531</p>
532
533<p>
534Gentoo uses <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path> to set clock options. Edit it
535according to your needs.
536</p>
537
538<pre caption="Opening /etc/conf.d/clock">
539# <i>nano -w /etc/conf.d/clock</i>
540</pre>
541
542<p>
543If your hardware clock is not using UTC, you need to add <c>CLOCK="local"</c>
544to the file. Otherwise you will notice some clock skew.
545</p>
546
547<p>
548When you're finished configuring <path>/etc/conf.d/clock</path>, save and
549exit.
550</p>
551
552<p test="not(func:keyval('arch')='PPC64')">
553Please continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary System
554Tools</uri>.
555</p>
556
557</body>
558</subsection>
559<subsection test="func:keyval('arch')='PPC64'">
560<title>Configuring the Console</title>
561<body>
562
563<p>
564If you are using a virtual console, you must uncomment the appropriate line in
565<path>/etc/inittab</path> for the virtual console to spawn a login prompt.
566</p>
567
568<pre caption="Enabling hvc or hvsi support in /etc/inittab">
569hvc0:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 9600 hvc0
570hvsi:12345:respawn:/sbin/agetty -L 19200 hvsi0
571</pre>
572
573<p>
574You should also take this time to verify that the appropriate console is
575listed in <path>/etc/securetty</path>.
576</p>
577
578<p>
579You may now continue with <uri link="?part=1&amp;chap=9">Installing Necessary
580System Tools</uri>.
39</p> 581</p>
40 582
41</body> 583</body>
42</subsection> 584</subsection>
43</section> 585</section>
586</sections>

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